Author + information
- Received January 11, 2008
- Revision received May 22, 2008
- Accepted May 23, 2008
- Published online November 1, 2008.
- Stephen H. Little, MD, FACC⁎,
- Bahar Pirat, MD⁎,
- Rahul Kumar, MD⁎,
- Stephen R. Igo, BSc‡,
- Marti McCulloch, BSc⁎,
- Craig J. Hartley, PhD‡,
- Jiaqiong Xu, PhD† and
- William A. Zoghbi, MD, FACC⁎,⁎ ()
Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. William A. Zoghbi, Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Imaging Institute, 6550 Fannin, SM-677, Houston, Texas 77030
Objectives Our goal was to prospectively compare the accuracy of real-time three-dimensional (3D) color Doppler vena contracta (VC) area and two-dimensional (2D) VC diameter in an in vitro model and in the clinical assessment of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity.
Background Real-time 3D color Doppler allows direct measurement of VC area and may be more accurate for assessment of MR than the conventional VC diameter measurement by 2D color Doppler.
Methods Using a circulatory loop with an incorporated imaging chamber, various pulsatile flow rates of MR were driven through 4 differently sized orifices. In a clinical study of patients with at least mild MR, regurgitation severity was assessed quantitatively using Doppler-derived effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA), and semiquantitatively as recommended by the American Society of Echocardiography. We describe a step-by-step process to accurately identify the 3D-VC area and compare that measure against known orifice areas (in vitro study) and EROA (clinical study).
Results In vitro, 3D-VC area demonstrated the strongest correlation with known orifice area (r = 0.92, p < 0.001), whereas 2D-VC diameter had a weak correlation with orifice area (r = 0.56, p = 0.01). In a clinical study of 61 patients, 3D-VC area correlated with Doppler-derived EROA (r = 0.85, p < 0.001); the relation was stronger than for 2D-VC diameter (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). The advantage of 3D-VC area over 2D-VC diameter was more pronounced in eccentric jets (r = 0.87, p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.6, p < 0.001, respectively) and in moderate-to-severe or severe MR (r = 0.80, p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.18, p = 0.4, respectively).
Conclusions Measurement of VC area is feasible with real-time 3D color Doppler and provides a simple parameter that accurately reflects MR severity, particularly in eccentric and clinically significant MR where geometric assumptions may be challenging.
James Seward, MD, served as Guest Editor for this paper.
Presented, in part, at the annual Scientific Sessions of the American Society of Echocardiography, Baltimore, Maryland, June, 2006, and the American Heart Association, Orlando, Florida, November, 2007.
- Received January 11, 2008.
- Revision received May 22, 2008.
- Accepted May 23, 2008.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation