Author + information
- Received November 1, 2016
- Revision received December 21, 2016
- Accepted December 22, 2016
- Published online February 6, 2017.
- aDepartment of Cardiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas
- bDepartment of Radiology and Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New-York Presbyterian, New York, New York
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Stephen H. Little, Houston Methodist Research Institute, 6550 Fannin Street, SM-677, Houston, Texas 77030.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is at the crossroads of printer and materials engineering, noninvasive diagnostic imaging, computer-aided design, and structural heart intervention. Cardiovascular applications of this technology development include the use of patient-specific 3D models for medical teaching, exploration of valve and vessel function, surgical and catheter-based procedural planning, and early work in designing and refining the latest innovations in percutaneous structural devices. In this review, we discuss the methods and materials being used for 3D printing today. We discuss the basic principles of clinical image segmentation, including coregistration of multiple imaging datasets to create an anatomic model of interest. With applications in congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease, and surgical and catheter-based structural disease, 3D printing is a new tool that is challenging how we image, plan, and carry out cardiovascular interventions.
- 3D print materials
- 3D-printed modeling
- aortic valve
- congenital heart defects
- coronary arteries
- mitral valve apparatus
Dr. Min is supported by grant UL1TR000457 of the Dalio Institute of Cardiovascular Imaging. Dr. Little has received research support from Abbott Structural Heart, Medtronic, and Neovasc. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received November 1, 2016.
- Revision received December 21, 2016.
- Accepted December 22, 2016.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation