Author + information
- Received March 6, 2018
- Revision received April 19, 2018
- Accepted May 24, 2018
- Published online November 5, 2018.
- Robert S. Stephenson, PhDa,b,
- Caroline B. Jones, MBBSc,
- Rafael Guerrero, MDc,
- Jichao Zhao, PhDd,
- Robert H. Anderson, PhDe and
- Jonathan C. Jarvis, PhDb,∗ ()
- aComparative Medicine Lab, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
- bSchool of Sport and Exercise Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
- cAlder Hey Childrens’ Hospital, Liverpool, United Kingdom
- dAuckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
- eNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Prof. Jonathan C. Jarvis, School of Sport and Exercise Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L33AF, United Kingdom.
We obtained National Health Service ethical approval to image congenitally malformed hearts from the Alder Hey archive, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Consented samples that were archived in the 1970s were scanned by Iodine-enhanced micro-computed tomography (CT) (1), producing 3-dimensional (3D) datasets with isometric voxels of 27 to 38 μm.
The morphology of these important samples is preserved permanently. Digital micro-CT images do not degrade. They can be viewed in any sectional plane or 3D orientation and contain information that allows us to segment and visualize the cardiac conduction system (Figures 1, 2, and 3⇓⇓⇓ and 6⇓⇓⇓) (Online Videos 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) and display the alignment of cardiomyocytes (Figure 4). This represents a stepwise change for investigation of archived samples. Data can be distributed as digital files or 3D prints (Figure 5) and can be viewed with commonly available software. Thus, anatomists, surgeons, cardiologists, and educators benefit from this new information.
The samples were free of residing blood, and were probably perfused before preservation. They were immersed in 3.75% iodine/potassium iodide in phosphate buffered formal saline for 2 weeks, refreshing solutions at 1 week (1).
The authors thank the curators of the Alder Hey archive. The 3D prints were produced in collaboration with 3D LifePrints.
This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 707663. Dr. Stephenson is a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Fellow of the European Union. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received March 6, 2018.
- Revision received April 19, 2018.
- Accepted May 24, 2018.
- 2018 The Authors