Interventional Correction of Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect and Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage
Procedural Planning Using 3D Printed Models
Mari Nieves Velasco Forte, Nick Byrne, Israel Valverde, Gorka Gomez Ciriza, Antony Hermuzi, Pimpak Prachasilchai, Gur Mainzer, Kuberan Pushparajah, Markus Henningsson, Tarique Hussain, Shakeel Qureshi and Eric Rosenthal
Representative images from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) are displayed. In all patients, CMR was diagnostic of partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (white arrows) involving the right upper pulmonary vein and right middle pulmonary vein, and a sinus venosus atrial septal defect (SVASD) (asterisk). Multiplanar reformat of an electrocardiogram-gated and respiratory navigated 3-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession (Online Appendix) acquisition shows the diagnostic features of this condition: superior vena cava (SVC) overriding the superior rim of the atrial septum in coronal (A) and sagittal (B) reformats, anomalous pulmonary veins (PVs) draining into the SVC in axial (C) and sagittal (D) orientations, and pathway continuation of the anomalous PVs to the left atrium (LA) in coronal view (E and F). Volume-rendered images demonstrate the SVASD (*) (G) and the course of the PVs: initially draining anomalously to the SVC before subsequent continuation to the LA (H) (white arrow) (Online Video 1). Ao = aorta; DAo = descending aorta; IVC = inferior vena cava; LPA = left pulmonary artery; LV = left ventricle; RA = right atrium; RPA = right pulmonary artery; RV = right ventricle.