Interventional Correction of Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect and Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage
Procedural Planning Using 3D Printed Models
Mari Nieves Velasco Forte, Nick Byrne, Israel Valverde, Gorka Gomez Ciriza, Antony Hermuzi, Pimpak Prachasilchai, Gur Mainzer, Kuberan Pushparajah, Markus Henningsson, Tarique Hussain, Shakeel Qureshi and Eric Rosenthal
The flexible, translucent models were examined to confirm the expected relationship of the anomalous PVs (arrows) to the SVC and LA. (A) Within the model, a balloon-mounted stent catheter was placed in the SVC to RA junction (blue catheter), while a dilator (red) was passed from the anomalous right upper PV to the left upper pulmonary vein (LUPV). The distance from the anomalous PV to the SVC–RA junction was measured using the 3-dimensional (3D) model and the cross-sectional images described in the preceding text. This allowed calculation of the length of the stent to close the defect and redirect the flow of the partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage toward the LA. Computed tomography was performed on the instrumented model using 3D rotational x-ray acquisition on the cardiac catheterization table. Selected frames illustrate anteroposterior (B) and postero-anterior views (C) (dilator in red; stent in green). See Online Videos 2 and 3 for full surface-rendered, 3D, rotating representations. Abbreviations as in Figure 1.