Author + information
- Received November 6, 2017
- Revision received January 12, 2018
- Accepted February 22, 2018
- Published online June 4, 2018.
- Nina C. Wunderlich, MDa,∗,
- Roy Beigel, MDb,c,∗,
- Siew Y. Ho, MDd,
- Fabian Nietlispach, MDe,
- Richard Cheng, MDf,
- Eustachio Agricola, MDg and
- Robert J. Siegel, MDf,∗ ()
- aCardiovascular Center Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
- bThe Heart Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel
- cSackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel
- dCardiac Morphology Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital and Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
- eUniversity Heart Center Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
- fThe Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California
- gDivision of Non-Invasive Cardiology, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Robert J. Siegel, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 127 S. San Vicente Boulevard, Suite A3600, Los Angeles, California 90048.
The mitral valve (MV) is a complex and intricate structure. With the development of transesophageal echocardiography in the 1990s, it became possible to evaluate MV anatomy and function in real time during surgical procedures. Subsequently, new surgical and percutaneous techniques for MV repair as well as replacement have evolved. Development of 3-dimensional and intracardiac echocardiography, as well as computed tomography, cardiac resonance imaging, and most recently fusion imaging, have paved the way for a more comprehensive evaluation of the MV as well as for the planning of percutaneous MV procedures such as balloon valvuloplasty, paravalvular mitral leak closure, percutaneous edge-to-edge repair, transcatheter MV annuloplasty, artificial chord implantation, and transcatheter MV replacement. The applicability and use of the various imaging modalities for the assessment and guidance of therapy for MV disorders is discussed in this paper.
- 2-dimensional echocardiography
- 3-dimensional echocardiography
- computed tomography
- direct transcatheter annuloplasty
- indirect transcatheter annuloplasty
- mitral regurgitation
- mitral stenosis
- paravalvular mitral leak
- transcatheter mitral interventions
- transcatheter mitral valve repair
- transcatheter mitral valve replacement
↵∗ Drs. Wunderlich and Beigel contributed equally to this paper and are joint first authors.
Dr. Wunderlich has served as a consultant for Edwards Lifesciences and Bioventrix. Dr. Nietlispach has served as a consultant for Abbott, Edwards Lifesciences, and Medtronic. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received November 6, 2017.
- Revision received January 12, 2018.
- Accepted February 22, 2018.
- 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation