Author + information
- Received June 15, 2018
- Revision received October 16, 2018
- Accepted October 19, 2018
- Published online February 4, 2019.
- aDepartment of Radiology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- bDepartment of Cardiac Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- cLibin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- dDepartment of Radiology, Children’s Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado
- eDepartment of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
- fBiomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Michael Markl, Department of Radiology & Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, 737 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 1600, Chicago, Illinois 60611.
Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in developed countries and is associated with the development of severe secondary complications such as aortic dilatation and aneurysm. Emerging evidence suggests that the modified hemodynamic environment associated with AS can cause altered flow patterns in the ascending aorta associated with aortic wall remodeling and development of aortopathy. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow for the comprehensive visualization and quantification of in vivo aortic flow pattern dynamics. In particular, the technique of 4-dimensional flow MRI offers the opportunity to derive advanced hemodynamic measures such as vorticity and helicity, wall shear stress, flow displacement, pressure gradients, viscous energy loss, and turbulent kinetic energy. This review introduces 4-dimensional flow MRI for blood flow visualization and quantification of hemodynamic metrics in the setting of aortic valve disease, with a focus on AS and associated secondary aortopathy.
All authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received June 15, 2018.
- Revision received October 16, 2018.
- Accepted October 19, 2018.
- 2019 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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