Author + information
- Received March 1, 2019
- Revision received May 20, 2019
- Accepted June 6, 2019
- Published online March 2, 2020.
- O’Neil R. Mason, MDa,
- Brian P. Davidson, MDa,
- Paul Sheeran, PhDb,
- Matthew Muller, BSa,
- James M. Hodovan, MS, RDCSa,
- Jonathan Sutton, PhDc,
- Jeffry Powers, PhDb and
- Jonathan R. Lindner, MDa,c,∗ (, )@JLindnerMD
- aKnight Cardiovascular Institute, Portland, Oregon
- bPhilips Ultrasound, Bothell, Washington; and Philips Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts
- cOregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Jonathan R. Lindner, Knight Cardiovascular Institute UHN62, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239.
Objectives The authors investigated ideal acoustic conditions on a clinical scanner custom-programmed for ultrasound (US) cavitation-mediated flow augmentation in preclinical models. We then applied these conditions in a first-in-human study to test the hypothesis that contrast US can increase limb perfusion in normal subjects and patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD).
Background US-induced cavitation of microbubble contrast agents augments tissue perfusion by convective shear and secondary purinergic signaling that mediates release of endogenous vasodilators.
Methods In mice, unilateral exposure of the proximal hindlimb to therapeutic US (1.3 MHz, mechanical index 1.3) was performed for 10 min after intravenous injection of lipid microbubbles. US varied according to line density (17, 37, 65 lines) and pulse duration. Microvascular perfusion was evaluated by US perfusion imaging, and in vivo adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release was assessed using in vivo optical imaging. Optimal parameters were then used in healthy volunteers and patients with PAD where calf US alone or in combination with intravenous microbubble contrast infusion was performed for 10 min.
Results In mice, flow was augmented in the US-exposed limb for all acoustic conditions. Only at the lowest line density was there a stepwise increase in perfusion for longer (40-cycle) versus shorter (5-cycle) pulse duration. For higher line densities, blood flow consistently increased by 3-fold to 4-fold in the US-exposed limb irrespective of pulse duration. High line density and long pulse duration resulted in the greatest release of ATP in the cavitation zone. Application of these optimized conditions in humans together with intravenous contrast increased calf muscle blood flow by >2-fold in both healthy subjects and patients with PAD, whereas US alone had no effect.
Conclusions US of microbubbles when using optimized acoustic environments can increase perfusion in limb skeletal muscle, raising the possibility of a therapy for patients with PAD. (Augmentation of Limb Perfusion With Contrast Ultrasound; NCT03195556)
Dr. Lindner is supported by grants R01-HL078610 and R01-HL130046, and Dr. Mason is supported by grant T32-HL094294 from the National Institutes of Health. The study was supported by a material support grant for contrast agent from Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc., N. Billerica, Massachusetts. Drs. Sheeran and Powers are employees of Philips Healthcare, Bothell, Washington; and Dr. Sutton is an employee of Philips Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Dr. Sheeran’s position at Philips is funded through grant R01-HL130046 from the National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator: Dr. Lindner). All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received March 1, 2019.
- Revision received May 20, 2019.
- Accepted June 6, 2019.
- 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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