|CER entails broad clinical areas impacting large segments of the population||Research assessing comparative modalities for improvements in health outcomes but also testing versus no testing trials to assess the impact of any testing on alterations in outcomes|
|End point selection: transparency of end points in relation to important clinical outcomes||The admixture of events commonly applied in CV imaging research will require a refocusing toward larger registries sufficiently powered to assess meaningful patient outcomes|
|Validation methodologies: an important part of comparative effectiveness research is the validation of study findings in ethnically-diverse populations of women and men across varied clinical presentations||There is a lack of methods for validation that require development in CV imaging|
|Dissemination of study findings to patients, health care providers, and policymakers||The development of standards for disseminating study findings to important stakeholders is critical to improve referral patterns and the quality of imaging-guided care|
CER = comparative effectiveness research; CV = cardiovascular.