|Average age||49.3 ± 16.5|
|TCD shunt grade before closure⁎|
|Grade ≥5 at rest||19||50|
|Grade ≥5 with Valsalva maneuver||13||34|
|Grade ≥5 with manometer||4||11|
The majority of the patient population was male (63%), and the mean age was 49.3 ± 16.5 years.
PFO = patent foramen ovale; TCD = transcranial Doppler.
↵⁎ Bubble studies were sequentially performed at rest, with Valsalva and with the manometer. If a TCD grade 5 shunt was discovered, further agitated saline injections were not repeated. One patient did not have a TCD ≥5 at any state, and PFO was diagnosed by mechanical probe of the septum.