Author + information
- Received June 12, 2009
- Revision received October 30, 2009
- Accepted November 6, 2009
- Published online June 1, 2010.
- Edda Bahlmann, MD⁎⁎ (, )
- Dana Cramariuc, MD, PhD†‡,
- Eva Gerdts, MD, PhD†‡,
- Christa Gohlke-Baerwolf, MD§,
- Christoph A. Nienaber, MD∥,
- Erlend Eriksen, MD†,
- Kristian Wachtell, MD, PhD¶,
- John Chambers, MD, PhD#,
- Karl Heinz Kuck, MD⁎ and
- Simon Ray, MD⁎⁎
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Edda Bahlmann, Asklepios Clinic St. Georg, II. Med. Clinic (Cardiology), Lohmühlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg, Germany
Objectives The aim of this analysis was to assess the diagnostic importance of pressure recovery in evaluation of aortic stenosis (AS) severity.
Background Although pressure recovery has previously been demonstrated to be particularly important in assessment of AS severity in groups of patients with moderate AS or small aortic roots, it has never been evaluated in a large clinical patient cohort.
Methods Data from 1,563 patients in the SEAS (Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis) study was used. Inner aortic diameter was measured at annulus, sinus, sinotubular junction, and supracoronary level. Aortic valve area index (AVAI) was calculated by continuity equation and pressure recovery and pressure recovery adjusted AVAI (energy loss index [ELI]), by validated equations. Primarily, sinotubular junction diameter was used to calculate pressure recovery and ELI, but pressure recovery and ELI calculated at different aortic root levels were compared. Severe AS was identified as AVAI and ELI ≤0.6 cm2/m2. Patients were grouped into tertiles of peak transaortic velocity.
Results Pressure recovery increased with increasing peak transaortic velocity. Overestimation of AS severity by unadjusted AVAI was largest in the lowest tertile and if pressure recovery was assessed at the sinotubular junction. In multivariate analysis, a larger difference between AVAI and ELI was associated with lower peak transaortic velocity (beta = 0.35) independent of higher left ventricular ejection fraction (beta = –0.049), male sex (beta = –0.075), younger age (beta = 0.093), and smaller aortic sinus diameter (beta = 0.233) (multiple R2 = 0.18, p < 0.001). Overall, 47.5% of patients classified as having severe AS by AVAI were reclassified to nonsevere AS when pressure recovery was taken into account.
Conclusions For accurate assessment of AS severity, pressure recovery adjustment of AVA must be routinely performed. Estimation of pressure recovery at the sinotubular junction is suggested.
The SEAS study was sponsored by MSP Singapore Company, LLC, Singapore, a partnership between Merck & Co., Inc., and the Schering-Plough Corporation. Drs. Gerdts, Gohlke-Baerwolf, Nienaber, Wachtell, Chambers, and Ray were investigators and/or members of the Steering Committees of the SEAS (Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis) study. Drs. Gerdts, Gohlke-Baerwolf, Bahlmann, and Ray have received grant support from Merck & Co., Inc., the sponsor of the SEAS study.
- Received June 12, 2009.
- Revision received October 30, 2009.
- Accepted November 6, 2009.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation