Author + information
- Received November 3, 2009
- Revision received January 20, 2010
- Accepted February 18, 2010
- Published online July 1, 2010.
- Daniel Staub, MD⁎,†,
- Arend F.L. Schinkel, MD, PhD⁎,‡,
- Blai Coll, MD, PhD¶,
- Stefano Coli, MD#,
- Antonius F.W. van der Steen, PhD§,⁎⁎,
- Jess D. Reed, PhD††,
- Christian Krueger, BS††,
- Kai E. Thomenius, PhD‡‡,
- Dan Adam, PhD§§,
- Eric J. Sijbrands, MD, PhD∥,
- Folkert J. ten Cate, MD, PhD‡ and
- Steven B. Feinstein, MD⁎,⁎ ()
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Steven B. Feinstein, Rush University, Medical Center, Section of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Suite 1015 Jelke, Chicago, Illinois 60612
Proliferation of the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) is inherently linked with early atherosclerotic plaque development and vulnerability. Recently, direct visualization of arterial VV and intraplaque neovascularization has emerged as a new surrogate marker for the early detection of atherosclerotic disease. This clinical review focuses on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as a noninvasive application for identifying and quantifying carotid and coronary artery VV and intraplaque neovascularization. These novel approaches could potentially impact the clinician's ability to identify individuals with premature cardiovascular disease who are at high risk. Once clinically validated, the uses of CEUS may provide a method to noninvasively monitor therapeutic interventions. In the future, the therapeutic use of CEUS may include ultrasound-directed, site-specific therapies using microbubbles as vehicles for drug and gene delivery systems. The combined applications for diagnosis and therapy provide unique opportunities for clinicians to image and direct therapy for individuals with vulnerable lesions.
Dr. Staub was supported by a fellowship grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant PBZHB-120997) and the Swiss Society of Angiology. Dr. Feinstein has received speaker's honorarium fees from Takeda and Abbott, and research funding from Abbott. Dr. Thomenius is an employee of GE Global Research.
- Received November 3, 2009.
- Revision received January 20, 2010.
- Accepted February 18, 2010.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation