Author + information
- Kuberan Pushparajah, BMBS, BMedSci,
- Owen I. Miller, BMed* ( and )
- John M. Simpson, MD
- ↵*Address for correspondence:
Dr. Kuberan Pushparajah, Specialty Trainee Paediatric Cardiology, 6th Floor Sky Offices, Evelina Children's Hospital, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom
A detailed understanding of the anatomy of the atrial septum (1) is increasingly important for the echocardiographer. This relates to the need to assess suitability for device closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs), echocardiographically guided transeptal puncture, and surgical planning for lesions such as atrioventricular septal defects.
We describe views of the atrial septum which can be achieved with current 3-dimensional (3D) techniques. The anatomical features of the normal atrial septum and morphology of different types of defects are described. Crucially, we present 3D images in a consistent, anatomically correct, orientation to retain useful landmarks of surrounding structures in the cropped images. Transesophageal and transthoracic images were obtained using the Philips 3D X3-1, X7-2 and X7-2t ultrasound probes on the Philips IE33 imaging system and analyzed using Q lab software (Philips Medical Systems, Andover, Massachusetts).
The normal features of the atrial septum and its associated defects are demonstrated in the order listed below, with images presented in a consistent anatomical format. A marker defining the anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior relationships of the images are noted. See Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓
3D echocardiography allows demonstration of living anatomy with moving images from novel projections not seen with standard 2-dimensional imaging. In this series, the whole septum can be presented in 1 image, where the anatomic relationships are self-evident.
For supplementary videos and their legends, please see the online version of this article.
All authors report that they have nothing to disclose.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation