Author + information
- Received March 9, 2012
- Revision received July 12, 2012
- Accepted August 1, 2012
- Published online December 1, 2012.
- Flavia Ravelli, PhD⁎,⁎ (, )
- Michela Masè, PhD⁎,
- Alessandro Cristoforetti, PhD⁎,
- Maurizio Del Greco, MD†,
- Maurizio Centonze, MD‡,
- Massimiliano Marini, MD† and
- Marcello Disertori, MD†
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Flavia Ravelli, Laboratory of Biophysics and Biosignals, Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, Povo, 38123 Trento, Italy
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomic distribution of critical sources in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by fusion of biatrial computed tomography (CT) images with cycle length (CL) and wave similarity (WS) maps.
Background Experimental and clinical studies show that atrial fibrillation (AF) may originate from rapid and repetitive (RR) sources of activation. Localization of RR sources may be crucial for an effective ablation treatment. Atrial electrograms showing rapid and repetitive activations can be identified by combining WS and CL analysis.
Methods Patients with persistent AF underwent biatrial electroanatomic mapping and pre-procedural CT cardiac imaging. WS and CL maps were constructed in 17 patients by calculating the degree of repetitiveness of activation waveforms (similarity index [S]) and the cycle length at each atrial site. WS/CL maps were then integrated with biatrial 3-dimensional CT reconstructions by a stochastic approach.
Results Repetitive sources of activation (S ≥0.5) were present in most patients with persistent AF (94%) and were mainly located at the pulmonary veins (82% of patients), at the superior caval vein (41%), on the anterior wall of the right atrium (23%), and at the left atrial appendage (23%). Potential driver sources showing both rapid and repetitive activations (CL = 140.7 ± 25.1 ms, S = 0.65 ± 0.15) were present only in a subset of patients (65%) and were confined to the pulmonary vein region (47% of patients) and left atrial appendage (12%). Differently, the repetitive activity of the superior caval vein was characterized by a slow activation rate (CL = 184.7 ± 14.6 ms).
Conclusions The identification and localization of RR sources is feasible by fusion of biatrial anatomic images with WS/CL maps. Potential driver sources are present only in a subset of patients with persistent AF and are mainly located in the pulmonary vein region.
This work was supported by a grant from the Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Trento e Rovereto. The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received March 9, 2012.
- Revision received July 12, 2012.
- Accepted August 1, 2012.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation