Author + information
- Received November 29, 2011
- Revision received January 6, 2012
- Accepted January 9, 2012
- Published online March 1, 2012.
- Partho P. Sengupta, MD, DM⁎,⁎ (, )
- Gianni Pedrizzetti, PhD†,
- Philip J. Kilner, MD‡,
- Arash Kheradvar, MD, PhD§,
- Tino Ebbers, PhD∥,
- Giovanni Tonti, MD¶,
- Alan G. Fraser, MB# and
- Jagat Narula, MD, PhD⁎,⁎ ()
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Partho P. Sengupta or Dr. Jagat Narula, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave L. Levy Place, PO Box 1030, New York, New York 10029
Blood flow patterns are closely linked to the morphology and function of the cardiovascular system. These patterns reflect the exceptional adaptability of the cardiovascular system to maintain normal blood circulation under a wide range of workloads. Accurate retrieval and display of flow-related information remains a challenge because of the processes involved in mapping the flow velocity fields within specific chambers of the heart. We review the potentials and pitfalls of current approaches for blood flow visualization, with an emphasis on acquisition, display, and analysis of multidirectional flow. This document is divided into 3 sections. First, we provide a descriptive outline of the relevant concepts in cardiac fluid mechanics, including the emergence of rotation in flow and the variables that delineate vortical structures. Second, we elaborate on the main methods developed to image and visualize multidirectional cardiovascular flow, which are mainly based on cardiac magnetic resonance, ultrasound Doppler, and contrast particle imaging velocimetry, with recommendations for developing dedicated imaging protocols. Finally, we discuss the potential clinical applications and technical challenges with suggestions for further investigations.
Dr. Kilner is supported by the British Heart Foundation and by the NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit of Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and Imperial College, London, United Kingdom. Dr. Fraser has received research support from Hitachi-Aloka. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received November 29, 2011.
- Revision received January 6, 2012.
- Accepted January 9, 2012.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation