Author + information
- Stephan Achenbach, MD∗∗ (, )
- Matthias G. Friedrich, MD†,
- Eike Nagel, MD‡,
- Christopher M. Kramer, MD§,
- Philip A. Kaufmann, MD⋮,
- Amir Farkhooy, MD¶,
- Vasken Dilsizian, MD# and
- Frank A. Flachskampf, MD¶
- ∗Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
- †Montreal Heart Institute, Cardiology, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
- ‡Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College, London, United Kingdom
- §Departments of Medicine and Radiology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia
- ⋮Department of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
- ¶Uppsala Universitet, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden
- #Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Stephan Achenbach, Department of Internal Medicine I (Cardiology), University of Giessen, Klinikstrasse 33, Giessen NA 35392, Germany.
Echocardiography, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), cardiac magnetic resonance, and cardiac computed tomography can be used for anatomic and functional imaging of the heart. All 4 methods are subject to continuous improvement. Echocardiography benefits from the more widespread availability of 3-dimensional imaging, strain and strain rate analysis, and contrast applications. SPECT imaging continues to provide very valuable prognostic data, and PET imaging, on the one hand, permits quantification of coronary flow reserve, a strong prognostic predictor, and, on the other hand, can be used for molecular imaging, allowing the analysis of extremely small-scale functional alterations in the heart. Magnetic resonance is gaining increasing importance as a stress test, mainly through perfusion imaging, and continues to provide very valuable prognostic information based on late gadolinium enhancement. Magnetic resonance coronary angiography does not substantially contribute to clinical cardiology at this point in time. Computed tomography imaging of the heart mainly concentrates on the imaging of coronary artery lumen and plaque and has made substantial progress regarding outcome data. In this review, the current status of the 5 imaging techniques is illustrated by reviewing pertinent publications of the year 2012.
- cardiac computed tomography
- cardiac magnetic resonance
- coronary angiography
- late gadolinium enhancement
- strain rate
Dr. Achenbach has received research grants from Siemens and Schering; and consulting fees from Guerbet. Dr. Nagel has received grant support from Philips Healthcare and Bayer Healthcare. Dr. Kramer has received research equipment support from Siemens Healthcare; and is a consultant for Synarc. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received February 21, 2013.
- Accepted April 25, 2013.