Author + information
- Received June 11, 2014
- Revision received July 9, 2014
- Accepted July 16, 2014
- Published online November 1, 2014.
- Kenya Kusunose, MD, PhD∗,
- Rayji S. Tsutsui, MD†,
- Kavita Bhatt, MD‡,
- Marie M. Budev, MD§,
- Zoran B. Popović, MD, PhD‡,§,
- Brian P. Griffin, MD‡ and
- Michael A. Bolen, MD‡,§∗ ()
- ∗Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, Japan
- †Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
- ‡Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
- §Department of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Respiratory Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Michael A. Bolen, Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Desk J1-5, Cleveland, Ohio 44195.
Objectives We investigated the effects of lung transplantation on right ventricular (RV) function as well as the prognostic value of pre- and post-transplantation RV function.
Background Although lung transplantation success has improved over recent decades, outcomes remain a challenge. Identifying predictors of mortality in lung transplant recipients may lead to improved long-term outcomes after lung transplantation.
Methods Eighty-nine (age 60 ± 6 years, 58 men) consecutive patients who underwent single or double lung transplantation and had pre- and post-transplantation echocardiograms between July 2001 and August 2012 were evaluated. Echocardiographic measurements were performed before and after lung transplantation. Left ventricular (LV) and RV longitudinal strains were analyzed using velocity vector imaging. Cox proportional prognostic hazard models predicting all-cause death were built.
Results There were 46 all-cause (52%) and 17 cardiac (19%) deaths during 43 ± 33 months of follow-up. After lung transplantation, echocardiography showed improved systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) (50 ± 19 mm Hg to 40 ± 13 mm Hg) and RV strain (−17 ± 5% to −18 ± 4%). No pre-transplantation RV parameter predicted all-cause mortality. After adjustment for age, sex, surgery type, and etiology of lung disease in a Cox proportional hazards model, both post-transplantation RV strain (hazard ratio: 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.23, p = 0.005), and post-transplantation SPAP (hazard ratio: 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.05, p = 0.011) were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. When post-transplantation RV strain and post-transplantation SPAP were added the clinical predictive model based on age, sex, surgery type, and etiology, the C-statistic improves from 0.60 to 0.80 (p = 0.002).
Conclusions Alterations of RV function and pulmonary artery pressure normalize, and post-transplantation RV function may provide prognostic data in patients after lung transplantation. Our study is based on a highly and retrospectively selected group. We believe that larger prospective studies are warranted to confirm this result.
The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received June 11, 2014.
- Revision received July 9, 2014.
- Accepted July 16, 2014.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation