|Threshold for Abnormal Value||Limitations|
|RV basal diameter||>41 mm||Dependent on probe rotation|
|RV mid-cavity diameter||>35 mm||Dependent on probe rotation; no validated reference point|
|RV base-to-apex diameter||>86 mm||Identification of the apical point; dependent on probe rotation|
|RV free wall thickness (subcostal or PSLA view)||>5 mm||Endocardial border delineation (trabeculations)|
|LV eccentricity index||>1|
|Fractional area change||<35%||Endocardial border delineation|
|TAPSE||<17 mm||Dependent on alignment with RV free wall; less accurate in case of free TR|
|Peak S′-wave velocity of the tricuspid annulus||<9.5 cm/s||Dependent on alignment with RV free wall; less accurate in case of free TR|
|Myocardial performance index||PW Doppler <0.43, PW TDI <0.54||Angle dependent|
|RV free wall longitudinal strain||<−20%||Dependent on image quality (angle dependency of TDI)|
|RV ejection fraction||<44%||Dependent on image quality; endocardial border delineation|
|RV end-diastolic volume||>87 (M) or 74 (F) ml/m2|
|RV end-systolic volume||>44 (M) or 36 (F) ml/m2|
Reference ranges are derived from the Recommendations on Chamber Quantification published jointly by the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (8).
3D = 3-dimensional; F = female threshold; M = male threshold; PSLA = parasternal long axis; PW = pulsed wave; TAPSE = tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TDI = tissue Doppler imaging; TR = tricuspid regurgitation; other abbreviations as in Table 1.