Schema Relating Coronary Size, Coronary Blood Flow, and Average Calculated ESS Explaining Different Manifestations of CAD in Women Than in Men
(A) Disordered or turbulent flow with low ESS. (B) Developed laminar flow in large arteries has higher ESS. (C) Developed laminar high flow in small arteries has highest ESS. Blue box: flow with the superscript 2 is flow squared. Pink box: flow with no superscript is flow raised to the first power. μ = blood viscosity; ACS = acute coronary syndrome; CAD = coronary artery disease; ESS = endothelial shear stress; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; r = radial distance from centerline; V = flow velocity.