Author + information
- Received September 1, 2017
- Revision received November 19, 2017
- Accepted November 27, 2017
- Published online January 17, 2018.
- Aditya Shekhara,
- Peter Heeger, MDa,
- Chris Reutelingsperger, PhDb,
- Eloisa Arbustini, MD, PhDc,
- Navneet Narula, MDd,
- Leonard Hofstra, MD, PhDe,
- Jeroen J. Bax, MD, PhDf and
- Jagat Narula, MD, PhDa,∗ ()
- aIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
- bMaastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands
- cCentre for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases, IRCCS Foundation University Hospital Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
- dNew York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York
- eVrije University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
- fLeiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Jagat Narula, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, New York 10029.
Cell death is desirable in cancer cells and undesirable in organs with limited regenerative potential, like the heart. Cell death comes in many forms, but only apoptosis and to a lesser degree necrosis is currently relevant to the clinical imager. Noninvasive imaging of cell death is an attractive option to understand pathophysiology, track disease activity, and evaluate response to intervention. Apoptosis seems to be the most promising target for imaging cell death, because it could be reversible and might be modulated with interventions. Molecular, nuclear, optical, or magnetic resonance imaging–based methods have been developed to identify intermediate steps in the apoptosis cascade. Animal studies show promising results for noninvasive imaging in various cardiovascular diseases. Human studies have shown feasibility, but clinical use is yet inconclusive. Newer technologies offer promise, especially for tracking apoptosis in evaluation of novel therapeutic interventions.
- coronary artery stenosis
- myocardial ischemia
- stable ischemic heart disease
- vulnerable plaque
Dr. Reutelingsperger has served as a scientific advisor to Annexin Pharmaceuticals and Matisse Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Bax’s institution, The Department of Cardiology at Leiden University Medical Center, has received unrestricted research grants from Biotronik, Medtronic, Boston Scientific, and Edwards Lifesciences. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received September 1, 2017.
- Revision received November 19, 2017.
- Accepted November 27, 2017.
- Central Illustration
- How Should an Imager Think About Cell Death?
- Molecular Imaging Techniques, Agents, and Targets for Imaging Necrotic Cells
- Molecular Imaging Techniques, Agents, and Targets for Imaging Autophagy
- Molecular Imaging Techniques, Agents, and Targets for Imaging Apoptotic Cells
- Nonexteriorized Targets for Imaging Apoptosis and Cell Survival
- Translational Opportunities in Imaging for Apoptosis
- Apoptosis in Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation