Table 4

Echocardiographic Parameters for Each of the Subgroups

NL (n = 42)PPM (n = 32)AVPO (n = 26)
Mean gradient, mm Hg16 ± 636 ± 843 ± 16
DVI0.42 ± 0.090.30 ± 0.050.25 ± 0.04
EOA, cm21.79 ± 0.561.07 ± 0.140.92 ± 0.26
EOAi, cm2/m21.00 ± 0.190.62 ± 0.080.55 ± 0.16
dA, cm2−0.12 ± 0.430.15 ± 0.240.59 ± 0.32
Ejection fraction, %58 ± 1164 ± 658 ± 13
AT, ms74 ± 1578 ± 13108 ± 20
AT/ET0.25 ± 0.050.26 ± 0.040.35 ± 0.05
Regurgitation
 Intraprosthetic, >1+1 (2)0 (0)17 (65)
 Paraprosthetic, >2+3 (6)1 (4)0 (0)

Values are mean ± SD or n (%).

AT = acceleration time; dA = difference between expected prosthetic orifice area, as reported by the manufacturer, and echocardiography-derived orifice area; DVI = Doppler velocity index; EOAi = effective orifice area normalized for body surface area; ET = ejection time; other abbreviations as in Tables 1 and 2.

  • p < 0.05 versus NL, and

  • p < 0.05 versus PPM by analysis of variance for independent samples, and Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher exact test when appropriate, with post hoc comparison (Tukey HSD or Dunnett's T3 methods).

  • For patients enrolled before 2006, AT and ET could not be calculated retrospectively for 8 of 42 NL patients, 11 of 32 PPM patients, and 12 of 26 AVPO patients.