Table 2

Fryback and Thornbury Levels of Diagnostic Test Evidence

1) Technical quality: imaging resolution, reliability, repeatability, and validity
2) Diagnostic accuracy: sensitivity, specificity, predictive accuracy
3) Diagnostic impact: impact of a diagnostic test on MD decision making or the ability of a diagnostic test to affect the diagnostic workup
4) Therapeutic impact: impact of a diagnostic test on patient management/affect treatment choices
5) Patient outcomes: ability of a diagnostic test to increase the survival or quality of life
6) Societal outcomes: cost effectiveness analysis

Data from Thornbury et al. (40) and Fryback et al. (41).