Table 1

Baseline Characteristics

Aortic Root Angulation°
≤37.0
(n = 540)
>37.0 and ≤41.0
(n = 485)
>41.0 and ≤44.1
(n = 490)
>44.1 and ≤47.0
(n = 502)
>47.0 and ≤50.6
(n = 486)
>50.6 and ≤55.0
(n = 525)
>55.0
(n = 550)
p Value for Trend
Age, yrs82.2 ± 8.182.8 ± 8.082.6 ± 8.283.2 ± 7.582.8 ± 7.884.2 ± 7.384.9 ± 7.2<0.0001
Body surface area, m21.81.91.81.91.91.81.90.231
Male294 (54.4)263 (54.2)278 (56.7)284 (56.6)265 (54.5)266 (50.7)298 (54.2)0.385
NYHA functional class0.063
 II81 (15)77 (15.9)67 (13.7)66 (13.1)53 (10.9)64 (12.2)73 (13.3)
 III369 (68.3)334 (68.9)342 (69.8)343 (68.3)346 (71.2)371 (70.7)378 (68.7)
 IV90 (16.7)74 (15.3)81 (16.5)93 (18.5)87 (17.9)90 (17.1)99 (18.0)
STS PROM, %8.7 ± 4.98.5 ± 4.58.7 ± 4.78.8 ± 4.88.5 ± 4.38.9 ± 4.79.0 ± 4.60.174
Logistic EuroSCORE, %21.9 ± 15.822.3 ± 15.322.0 ± 16.522.5 ± 15.821.2 ± 15.521.8 ± 16.122.5 ± 15.80.956
Diabetes mellitus190 (35.2)177 (36.5)186 (38.0)195 (38.8)206 (42.4)192 (36.6)190 (34.5)0.860
Creatinine level >2 mg/dl23 (4.3)15 (3.1)25 (5.1)22 (4.4)21 (4.3)26 (5.0)27 (4.9)0.313
History of hypertension502 (93.0)445 (91.8)467 (93.3)468 (93.2)448 (92.2)497 (94.7)509 (92.5)0.575
Peripheral vascular disease275 (51.1)222 (45.9)225 (46.0)233 (46.7)216 (44.6)236 (45.0)219 (39.8)0.001
Prior stroke64 (11.9)66 (13.6)63 (12.9)77 (15.4)62 (12.8)64 (12.2)75 (13.6)0.743
Prior TIA61 (11.3)39 (8.1)43 (8.8)61 (12.2)60 (12.3)65 (12.4)57 (10.4)0.232
Chronic lung disease302 (55.9)265 (54.6)260 (53.1)284 (56.7)284 (58.4)255 (48.6)272 (49.5)0.019
Coronary artery disease436 (80.7)374 (77.1)394 (80.4)406 (80.9)380 (78.2)411 (78.3)427 (77.6)0.306
Prior CABG205 (38.0)173 (35.7)180 (36.7)196 (39.0)156 (32.1)181 (34.5)176 (32.0)0.023
Prior PCI234 (43.3)207 (42.7)210 (42.9)184 (36.7)174 (35.8)193 (36.8)178 (32.4)<0.0001
Atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter226 (41.9)217 (44.9)197 (40.5)223 (44.6)205 (42.2)239 (45.7)259 (47.1)0.093
Anatomic pathology
 Aortic calcification0.010
 Severe calcification73 (13.5)61 (12.6)50 (10.2)66 (13.2)53 (10.9)60 (11.4)59 (10.7)
 Porcelain aorta24 (4.4)18 (3.7)11 (2.2)16 (3.2)14 (2.9)12 (2.3)11 (2.0)
 Chest wall deformity17 (3.1)8 (1.6)10 (2.0)7 (1.4)11 (2.3)17 (3.2)9 (1.6)0.682
 Hostile mediastinum57 (10.6)38 (7.9)50 (10.2)39 (7.8)33 (6.8)33 (6.3)34 (6.2)0.002

Values are mean ± SD or n (%).

CABG = coronary artery bypass grafting; EuroSCORE = the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation; NYHA = New York Heart Association; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; STS PROM = Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predictor of Mortality; TIA = transient ischemic attack.