Table 4

Participants With Glycemic Abnormality Over 25 Years for LV Systolic and Diastolic Dysfunction at Year 25

NIGT/IFGLate DMEarly DM
LowHighLowHigh
Model 1
 LV systolic dysfunction
 (LVEF <50%)
1120.95 (0.59–1.53)2.02 (1.02–4.00)4.84 (2.46–9.55)1.68 (0.38–7.37)5.84 (2.08–16.39)
 LV diastolic dysfunction (E/e′ ≥13)1021.00 (0.60–1.67)1.29 (0.65–2.60)2.21 (1.03–4.75)1.46 (0.32–6.70)3.27 (1.07–10.04)
Model 2
 LV systolic dysfunction
 (LVEF <50%)
1120.93 (0.57–1.50)1.91 (0.95–3.83)4.42 (2.16–9.06)1.63 (0.37–7.18)5.44§ (1.91–15.52)
 LV diastolic dysfunction (E/e′ ≥13)1020.97 (0.58–1.62)1.22 (0.60–2.48)2.01 (0.90–4.47)1.39 (0.30–6.45)2.99 (0.96–9.37)

Values are odds ratio (95% confidence interval).

Abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • High = high average HbA1c (HbA1c >7.0%); Low = low average HbA1c (HbA1c ≤7.0%).

  • p < 0.05.

  • p < 0.001.

  • § p < 0.005 vs. NGT (n = 1,391 for LV systolic dysfunction and n = 1,435 for LV diastolic dysfunction) as the reference among 4 glycemic abnormality groups. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, race, physical activity, educational level, alcohol intake, systolic blood pressure, antihypertension medications, smoking status, and heart rate. Model 2: adjusted for model 1 plus waist-hip ratio.