Table 1

Participant Characteristics in Glycemic Abnormality at the CARDIA Year 25 Examinations (N = 3,179)

nNGT
(n = 1,485)
nIGT/IFG
(n = 1,241)
nLate DM
(n = 368)
nEarly DM
(n = 85)
p for Trend
Age, yrs1,48549.8 ± 3.71,24150.5 ± 3.536850.6 ± 3.78551.2 ± 3.1<0.0001
Female1,485961 (64.7)1,241503 (40.5)368198 (53.8)8548 (56.5)<0.0001
White1,485832 (56.0)1,241707 (57.0)368115 (31.3)8538 (44.7)<0.0001
Weight, kg1,48581.3 ± 19.81,24190.3 ± 20.2368103.7 ± 25.68594.3 ± 21.1<0.0001
BMI, kg/m21,48528.5 ± 6.61,24130.4 ± 6.636835.8 ± 8.48532.5 ± 6.3<0.0001
BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (obesity)1,485485 (32.7)1,241572 (46.1)368278 (75.5)8551 (60.0)<0.0001
Waist circumference, cm1,48589.1 ± 14.21,24197.0 ± 14.4368107.9 ± 16.285102.1 ± 16.9<0.0001
Hip circumference, cm1,485108.3 ± 13.51,241110.6 ± 13.1368119.1 ± 17.385114.7 ± 13.7<0.0001
Waist-to-hip ratio1,4850.82 ± 0.081,2410.88 ± 0.083680.91 ± 0.09850.89 ± 0.09<0.0001
Heart rate, beats/30 s1,48532.5. ± 4.91,24133.5 ± 5.636835.5 ± 5.68535.2 ± 6.2<0.0001
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg1,485115.8 ± 14.61,241120.5 ± 14.8368124.5 ± 17.485121.3 ± 16.9<0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg1,48572.1 ± 10.71,24175.2 ± 10.536878.1 ± 10.68473.8 ± 10.5<0.0001
Hypertension1,485352 (23.7)1,241438 (35.3)368267 (72.6)8453 (63.1)<0.0001
Smoking status0.03
 Current smoker222 (15.0)227 (18.3)79 (21.5)11 (12.9)
 Former smoker328 (22.1)268 (21.6)81 (22.0)20 (23.5)
 Never smoker935 (63.0)746 (60.1)208 (56.5)54 (63.5)
Antihypertensive medication1,485250 (16.8)1,241326 (26.3)368233 (63.3)8548 (56.5)<0.0001
Educational level ≤12 yrs1,485282 (19.0)1,241296 (23.9)368110 (29.9)8521 (24.7)<0.0001
Physical activity, EU1,485351 ± 2761,241352 ± 283368278 ± 24885298 ± 2840.0002
Fasting glucose, mg/dl1,42188.2 ± 6.31,19798.7 ± 9.0356139.9 ± 55.281140.7 ± 75.3<0.0001
Fasting insulin, μU/ml1,4138.5 ± 5.81,19112.0 ± 8.135518.8 ± 11.87616.0 ± 30.2<0.0001
HbA1c, %1,4465.38 ± 0.351,2155.56 ± 0.383577.27 ± 1.75837.40 ± 2.27<0.0001
Total cholesterol, mg/dl1,478192.7 ± 35.01,239195.0 ± 37.3368186.1 ± 41.584185.7 ± 42.00.001
CRP, mg/dl1,4752.58 ± 6.411,2373.23 ± 5.803685.73 ± 6.99843.43 ± 6.00<0.0001
Log CRP, mg/dl1,4750.19 ± 1.181,2370.43 ± 1.183681.11 ± 1.19840.50 ± 1.15<0.0001
HOMA-IR1,4131.87 ± 1.331,1912.97 ± 2.123556.52 ± 4.89765.14 ± 7.04<0.0001
Log HOMA-IR1,4130.41 ± 0.651,1910.86 ± 0.693551.62 ± 0.75761.16 ± 0.98<0.0001
LVEF, %1,40661.6 ± 6.71,14961.3 ± 7.231460.5 ± 8.67358.3 ± 9.80.004
LVMI, g/m21,37880.9 ± 20.11,08685.6 ± 21.130987.5 ± 22.87494.5 ± 28.7<0.0001
RWT1,3790.34 ± 0.071,0820.35 ± 0.073080.37 ± 0.08740.36 ± 0.08<0.0001
LVM/LVEDV ratio1,3141.51 ± 0.461,0241.58 ± 0.502761.70 ± 0.56651.73 ± 0.55<0.0001
e′, cm/s1,46010.9 ± 2.31,21710.4 ± 2.23569.4 ± 2.1829.6 ± 2.7<0.0001
E/e′ ratio1,4517.63 ± 2.171,2117.70 ± 2.233518.99 ± 2.66798.79 ± 2.99<0.0001
Ell, %1,319−15.5 ± 2.41,093−14.9 ± 2.3291−14.1 ± 2.568−13.5 ± 2.9<0.0001
Ecc, %1,362−15.5 ± 2.71,096−15.3 ± 2.8297−14.8 ± 3.271−14.2 ± 3.3<0.0001
Ell_SRe, s−11,3160.86 ± 0.251,0890.79 ± 0.242870.75 ± 0.26670.73 ± 0.26<0.0001
Ecc_SRe, s−11,3590.81 ± 0.321,0950.80 ± 0.322970.75 ± 0.35710.72 ± 0.290.006

Values are mean ± SD or n (%). Comparisons across categorical glycemic abnormality groups were by Student t test from an analysis of variance for continuous variables and by Wald chi-square test for categorical variables. Normal indicates no DM and no IGT/IFG; IGT/IFG indicates IGT/IFG at some point; late DM indicates DM year 15 or later; and early DM indicates DM year 0 or year 10.

BSA = body surface area; BMI = body mass index; CARDIA = Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults; CRP = C-reactive protein; DM = diabetes mellitus; e′ = peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity; Ecc = circumferential peak systolic strain; Ecc_SRe = circumferential peak early diastolic strain rate; E/e′ = ratio of early peak diastolic mitral velocity/peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity; Ell = longitudinal peak systolic strain; Ell_SRe = longitudinal peak early diastolic strain rate; EU = exercise unit; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c; HOMA-IR = homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IFG = impaired fasting glucose; IGT = impaired glucose tolerance; LV = left ventricular; LVEDV = left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; LVM = left ventricular mass; LVMI = left ventricular mass index; NGT = normal glucose tolerance; RWT = relative wall thickness.