Table 2

Relationships of Glycemic Abnormality Over 25 Years to LV Structural and Functional Indexes

Dependent VariablesnIGT/IFG
β Coefficient (SE)
nLate DM
β Coefficient (SE)
nEarly DM
β Coefficient (SE)
Structural indexes
 LVMI, g/m21,086−0.25 (0.89)3091.99 (1.56)7411.04 (2.76)
 RWT1,0820.003 (0.003)3080.008 (0.006)740.006 (0.010)
 LVM/LVEDV ratio1,0240.05 (0.02)2760.12 (0.04)650.21 (0.07)
Systolic functional indexes
 LVEF, %1,1490.36 (0.33)314−0.79 (0.57)73−2.72 (1.00)
 Ell, %1,0930.23 (0.11)2910.66 (0.18)681.53 (0.32)
 Ecc, %1,096−0.06 (0.13)2970.38 (0.23)711.12 (0.40)
Diastolic functional indexes
 e′, cm/s1,217−0.03 (0.10)356−0.63 (0.17)82−0.67 (0.30)
 E/e′ ratio1,211−0.07 (0.10)3510.64 (0.17)790.67 (0.30)
 Ell_SRe, s−11,089−0.03 (0.01)287−0.06 (0.02)67−0.09 (0.03)
 Ecc_SRe, s−11,0950.01 (0.01)297−0.03 (0.03)71−0.07 (0.05)
Intergroup Differences Between Groups With Abnormal Glycemic Control
p Value: IGT/IFG
vs. Late DM
p Value: IGT/IFG
vs. Early DM
p Value: Late DM
vs. Early DM
Structural indexes
 LVMI, g/m20.1489<0.00010.0026
 RWT0.33910.75740.8333
 LVM/LVEDV ratio0.0530.02060.2586
Systolic functional indexes
 LVEF, %0.04180.00220.0778
 Ell, %0.0178<0.00010.0147
 Ecc, %0.05350.00330.0883
Diastolic functional indexes
 e′, cm/s0.00040.03470.90
 E/e′ ratio<0.00010.01590.929
 Ell_SRe, s−10.1120.07970.4292
 Ecc_SRe, s−10.06260.05640.4281

SE = standard error; other abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • p < 0.05, †p < 0.005, ‡p < 0.001 (including p < 0.0001) vs. NGT (n ranges from 1,314 to 1,460) as the reference among 4 glycemic abnormality groups. Model: adjusted for age, sex, race, physical activity, educational level, alcohol intake, systolic blood pressure, antihypertension medications, smoking status, and heart rate.