Table 1

Clinical Characteristics

All (N = 68)Peak VO2 ≥14 ml/kg/min (n = 32)Peak VO2 <14 ml/kg/min (n = 36)p Value
Age, yrs60 ± 1259 ± 1261 ± 120.51
Male6981590.04
HR, beats/min68 ± 1067 ± 570 ± 130.30
SBP, mm Hg114 ± 19114 ± 16113 ± 220.71
DBP, mm Hg62 ± 1264 ± 1561 ± 100.39
Body mass index, kg/m223 (21–24)22 (21–24)23 (22–24)0.07
NYHA functional class
 I10100<0.001
 II4921280.27
 III7160.07
 IV2020.18
Diabetes2825310.62
Hypertension7672810.41
Etiology
 Ischemic cardiomyopathy7584670.09
 Nonischemic cardiomyopathy2516330.09
CPX
 Peak exercise, W108 ± 37127 ± 3791 ± 29<0.001
 HR at peak exercise, beats/min133 ± 18138 ± 17119 ± 130.011
 SBP at peak exercise, mm Hg176 ± 25175 ± 23177 ± 290.84
 Peak VO2, ml/kg/min15 ± 620 ± 511 ± 3<0.001
 % Peak VO2, %60 ± 2578 ± 2144 ± 15<0.001
Echocardiography
 Baseline
  LVEDVi, ml/m269 ± 2973 ± 2964 ± 290.19
  LVESVi, ml/m242 ± 2643 ± 2741 ± 240.82
  LVEF, %43 ± 1546 ± 1640 ± 130.06
  SVi, ml/m227 ± 831 ± 723 ± 8<0.001
  LVGLS, %−13 ± 6−15 ± 6−11 ± 50.003
  E, cm/s55 (42–69)53 (41–71)60 (42–72)0.11
  A, cm/s69 (57–82)64 (57–82)75 (52–82)0.76
  E/A0.8 (0.6–0.9)0.8 (0.6–0.9)0.8 (0.7–0.9)0.19
  e', cm/s6.6 ± 2.37.2 ± 2.36.0 ± 2.20.03
  E/e'9.9 ± 5.08.3 ± 4.111.2 ± 5.40.02
  Peak PASP, mm Hg33 ± 730 ± 436 ± 8<0.001
  RVEDAi, cm2/m210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 30.89
  RVESAi, cm2/m27 ± 36 ± 27 ± 30.09
  RVFAC, %34 ± 1439 ± 1429 ± 130.004
  TAPSE, mm15 ± 416 ± 415 ± 40.08
  RVS’, cm/s7.2 ± 1.67.7 ± 1.46.8 ± 1.60.01
  RV strain, %−17 ± 5−20 ± 4−14 ± 4<0.001
  LAVi, ml/m232 ± 1429 ± 1434 ± 140.15
 During LPP
  LVEDVi, ml/m273 ± 3177 ± 2670 ± 360.36
  LVESVi, ml/m244 ± 2942 ± 2545 ± 320.64
  LVEF, %44 ± 1749 ± 1640 ± 170.04
  SVi, ml/m229 ± 1034 ± 824 ± 9<0.001
  LVGLS, %−14 ± 5−16 ± 5−12 ± 40.002
  E, cm/s74 (54–85)61 (53–91)78 (56–91)0.06
  A, cm/s68 (58–88)66 (60–89)69 (58–89)0.82
  E/A0.9 (0.8–1.4)0.9 (0.7–1.4)1.0 (0.8–1.4)0.22
  e', cm/s7.4 ± 2.58.2 ± 2.56.7 ± 2.40.011
  E/e'11.5 ± 6.29.5 ± 5.513.3 ± 6.20.009
  Peak PASP, mm Hg37 ± 933 ± 541 ± 10<0.001
  RVEDAi, cm2/m211 ± 312 ± 311 ± 30.65
  RVESAi, cm2/m27 ± 37 ± 38 ± 20.19
  RVFAC, %36 ± 1341 ± 1331 ± 110.002
  TAPSE, mm17 ± 318 ± 316 ± 30.007
  RVS’, cm/s7.9 ± 1.48.4 ± 1.07.5 ± 1.60.01
  RV strain, %−17 ± 5−20 ± 4−15 ± 4<0.001

Values are mean ± SD, %, or median (interquartile range).

A = late diastolic transmitral flow velocity; CPX = cardiopulmonary exercise testing; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; E = early diastolic transmitral flow velocity; e’ = early diastolic mitral annular motion; HR = heart rate; LAVi = left atrial volume index; LPP = leg positive pressure; LVEDVi = left ventricular end-diastolic volume index; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESVi = left ventricular end-systolic volume index; LVGLS = left ventricular global longitudinal strain; NYHA = New York Heart Association; PASP = pulmonary artery systolic pressure; RV = right ventricular; RVEDAi = right ventricular end diastolic area index; RVESAi = right ventricular end systolic area index; RVFAC = right ventricular functional area change; RVS’ = right ventricular systolic velocity; SBP = systolic blood pressure; SVi = stoke volume index; TAPSE = tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; VO2 = oxygen uptake.