Table 1

Novel PET Tracers for Cardiovascular Applications

TargetDiseaseRef. #
PET tracer
 18F-Fluciclatideαvβ3 and αvβ5 integrinsAngiogenesis/functional recovery post–myocardial infarction(84)
 11C-hydroxyephedrineDenervation in the myocardiumIschemic heart disease/heart failure(85)
 11C-PiBAmyloidCardiac amyloidosis(1)
 18F-florbetapir
 18F-flutemetamol
 18F-florbetaben
 64Cu-DOTATATEMacrophagesVascular inflammation in atherosclerosis(86)
 68Ga-DOTATATE
 18F-sodium fluorideMicro-calcificationAtherosclerotic plaque and aortic stenosis(10,14,19)
AmyloidCardiac amyloidosis(54)
 18F-MISOTissue hypoxiaAtherosclerotic plaque(87)
 68Ga-NOTA-RGDAngiogenesisAtherosclerotic plaque(88)
 18F-galacto-RGD
 11C-PK11195Translocator proteinAtherosclerotic plaque(89)
 11C-cholineMacrophagesVascular inflammation in atherosclerosis(90,91)
 18F-choline
MR tracer
 Ultra-small paramagnetic iron oxide particlesMacrophagesAtherosclerotic plaque(36,62)
 Gadolinium-labeled liposomesMonocytesAtherosclerotic plaque(92)
 Paramagnetic quantum dotsTargeted cell internalizationVarious targets: atherosclerotic plaque/tumors(93)
 Gadolinium-labeled liposomesInfarcted myocardiumIschemic myocardium(94)

MR = magnetic resonance; PET = positron emission tomography.