Table 3

Summary of Potential Cardiovascular Uses of MR/PET

MR AssessmentPET AssessmentPotential Clinical UseRef. #
Myocardial perfusionContrast-enhanced stress perfusion82Rb chloride, 13N ammonia, 15O water (stress perfusion)Cross-validation
Younger patients
(1)
Myocardial viabilityLGE (myocardial tissue characterization)18F-FDG (viability)Cross-validation
Younger patients
(43,44)
Cardiac sarcoidosisCine imaging (LV structure and function)
LGE and T1/T2 mapping (myocardial tissue characterization)
18F-FDG, 68Ga-dotatate (inflammation)Assess disease activity
Monitor response to therapy
(46–50)
Cardiac amyloidCine imaging (LV structure and function)
LGE and T1 mapping (myocardial tissue characterization)
18F-fluordide (TTR vs. AL amyloid)
18F-fluorbetapan (amyloid deposition)
18F-FDG (inflammation)
Differentiate AL from TTR amyloid
Monitor response to therapy
(54)
Other cardiomyopathiesCine imaging (LV structure and function)
LGE and T1/T2 mapping (myocardial tissue characterization)
18F-FDG, 68Ga-dotatate (inflammation)
18F-fluciclatide (angiogenesis)
Novel tracers for fibrosis activity
Improve diagnostic accuracy
Assess disease activity
Monitor response to therapy
(48,51,67)
Atherosclerotic plaqueMR angiography (anatomy and stenosis)
Multispectral black blood and T1-weighted plaque imaging (plaque burden and plaque characterization)
18F-FDG, 68Ga-dotatate (inflammation)
18F-fluoride (microcalcification)
18F-fluciclatide (angiogenesis)
Assess disease activity
Monitor response to therapy
Improve risk prediction
(57–64)
Heart valve diseaseFlow mapping (severity of regurgitation/stenosis)
Cine imaging (LV remodeling and function)
LGE and T1 mapping (myocardial tissue characterization)
18F-FDG, 68Ga-dotatate (inflammation)
18F-fluoride (microcalcification)
Simultaneous assessment of disease activity in the valve and LV remodeling
Improve risk stratification
Assessment of endocarditis
(15,68–70)
Congenital heart diseaseCine imaging (LV structure and function)
Flow mapping (severity of regurgitation/stenosis)
18F-FDG, 68Ga-dotatate (inflammation)
18F-fluoride (microcalcification)
Assess degeneration of prostheses
Endocarditis
(7)
Aortic aneurysm diseaseMR angiography (anatomy)
USPIO imaging (inflammation)
4D flow mapping (shear stress mechanical stress)
18F-FDG, 68Ga-dotatate (inflammation)
18F-fluoride (microcalcification)
Measure disease activity
Improve risk prediction
(63)

4D = four-dimensional; AL = acquired monoclonal immunoglobulin light-chain; FDG = fluorodeoxyglucose; LGE = late gadolinium enhancement; LV = left ventricular; USPIO = ultra-small paramagnetic iron oxide; other abbreviations as in Tables 1 and 2.