Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of Patients With Aortic Stenosis and Healthy Volunteers

Healthy Volunteers (n = 37)Aortic Stenosis (n = 166)p Value
Age, yrs68 (63−74)69 (63−75)0.44
Men24 (65)115 (69)0.57
Hypertension10 (27)112 (67)<0.001
Diabetes mellitus025 (15)
Coronary artery disease3 (8)62 (37)
 Coronary CTA assessment13 (35)21 (13)
Invasive coronary angiography3 (8)78 (47)
 Previous PCI2 (5)11 (6)
 Previous CABG08 (5)
Atrial fibrillation04 (2)
Body mass index, kg/m227.0 ± 3.628.9 ± 4.80.02
Body surface area, m21.86 ± 0.161.88 ± 0.190.54
NYHA functional class
 I36 (97)74 (45)
 II1 (3)56 (34)<0.001
 III32 (19)
 IV4 (2)
6-min walk test, m430 (400−475)400 (340−450)0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg148 ± 16151 ± 210.53
Biomarkers
 High sensitivity troponin I concentration, ng/l3.1 (1.2−7.1)6.6 (3.8−12.4)<0.001
 Brain natriuretic peptide concentration, pg/ml9.5 (5.1−20.6)26.1 (10.7−54.3)0.001
Echocardiography
 Aortic valve area, cm22.4 ± 0.61.0 ± 0.4<0.001
 Peak aortic jet velocity, m/s1.4 ± 0.23.8 ± 0.9<0.001
 Mean pressure gradient, mm Hg4.2 ± 1.435 ± 19<0.001
 Dimensionless index0.71 (0.67−0.81)0.26 (0.22−0.32)<0.001
 Valvulo-arterial impedance, mm Hg/ml/m24.0 (3.6−4.7)4.3 (3.6−5.1)0.38
 Mean e', cm/s7.3 (6.2−8.1)5.9 (4.9−7.5)<0.001
 Mean E/e' ratio8.5 (7.0−10.4)12.6 (10.3−16.9)<0.001
 Mean diastolic dysfunction grade0.5 ± 0.82.0 ± 0.9<0.001
Cardiac magnetic resonance
 EDVi, ml/m266 (60−80)69 (61−78)0.52
 End-systolic volume (indexed), ml/m223 (19−29)23 (18−27)0.40
 Stroke volume (indexed), ml/m244 (40−50)47 (40−54)0.16
 Systolic ejection fraction, %65 (62−68)67 (63−71)0.02
 Longitudinal function, mm14.8 ± 2.712.2 ± 2.9<0.001
 LVMi, g/m262 (54−71)88 (73−99)<0.001
 LVMi/EDVi, g/ml0.92 (0.84−0.99)1.24 (1.04−1.44)<0.001
 Maximal myocardial wall thickness, mm7.5 (6.8−8.7)11.4 (8.8−14.2)<0.001
 Mean myocardial wall thickness, mm5.6 (5.0−6.3)7.4 (6.3−9.0)<0.001
 Indexed left atrial volume, ml/m228 ± 1136 ± 150.01
 Mid-wall late gadolinium enhancement044 (27)
 Native myocardial T1, ms1,166 ± 271,184 ± 420.02
 20-min post-contrast myocardial T1, ms645 ± 51638 ± 460.47
 Partition coefficient0.45 ± 0.020.46 ± 0.040.06
 Extracellular volume fraction, %26.5 ± 1.327.7 ± 2.60.005
 Fibrosis volume, ml29.9 ± 7.344.4 ± 15.1<0.0001
 Indexed extracellular volume, ml/m216.1 ± 3.223.6 ± 7.2<0.0001

Values are median (interquartile range), n (%), or mean ± SD. Coronary artery disease was defined by previous myocardial infarction, clinical symptoms of angina with documented evidence of myocardial ischemia in the absence of severe aortic stenosis, a >50% luminal stenosis in a major epicardial coronary artery or previous coronary revascularization. All patients with clinical symptoms of angina underwent coronary angiography.

CABG = coronary artery bypass graft; CTA = computed tomography angiography; EDVi = end-diastolic volume (indexed); LVMi = left ventricular mass (index); NYHA = New York Heart Association; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention.