Table 3

Progressive Increase in Markers of LV Hypertrophy and Decompensation With Increasing iECV Stratified Into Tertiles

Tertile 1 (n = 54)Tertile 2 (n = 54)Tertile 3 (n = 53)p Value
Age, yrs70 (63−75)70 (65−70)72 (64−78)0.30
Men27 (50)42 (78)43 (81)0.0006
Echocardiography
 Peak aortic jet velocity, m/s3.45 ± 0.783.77 ± 0.814.25 ± 0.96<0.0001
 Aortic valve area, cm21.01 ± 0.370.95 ± 0.360.90 ± 0.350.32
 Mean AV pressure gradient, mm Hg27.6 ±12.732.7 ± 15.042.6 ± 23.7<0.0001
  Mild aortic stenosis19123
  Moderate aortic stenosis131715
  Severe aortic stenosis222535
 Valvulo-arterial impedance, mm Hg/ml/m24.4 ± 1.14.0 ± 1.03.8 ± 1.00.019
 Mean e', cm/s6.9 ± 2.06.4 ± 1.75.4 ± 1.8<0.0001
 Mean E/e' ratio11.6 (9.8−14.4)12.4 (9.3−16.5)14.3 (11.9−19.2)0.02
 Mean diastolic dysfunction grade1.5 ± 1.02.0 ± 0.82.5 ± 0.7<0.0001
CMR
 LVMi, g/m268 ± 988 ± 9110 ± 19<0.0001
 Ejection fraction, %68 (63−71)67 (64−73)66 (61−71)0.44
 Longitudinal function, mm13.0 ± 2.712.8 ± 2.711.0 ± 3.00.0004
 Mid-wall fibrosis2 (4)6 (11)36 (68)0.0001
 Indexed left atrial volume, ml/m229 ± 1336 ± 1438 ± 130.004
Biomarkers
 Natural log (hs troponin I)1.3 (0.8−1.6)2.1 (1.5–2.4)2.5 (1.9−3.3)<0.0001
 Natural log (BNP)2.8 (1.9−3.5)3.1 (2.4−3.9)4.0 (2.8−4.7)<0.0001
Functional status
 6-min walk test, m410 (345−445)410 (358−453)385 (295−443)0.09
 NYHA functional class, %
  I27 (50)23 (43)24 (45)
  II20 (37)19 (35)15 (28)
  III6 (11)12 (22)11 (21)
  IV1 (2)0 (0)3 (6)
Outcomes
 All-cause mortality2210
 Mortality rate (per 1,000 patient-years)1212720.005
 Aortic stenosis-related mortality028

Values are median (interquartile range), n (%), or mean ± SD. Five patients had insufficient data to calculate the indexed extracellular volume.

AV = aortic valve; BNP = brain natriuretic peptide; CMR = cardiac magnetic resonance; hs = high-sensitivity; other abbreviations as in Table 1.