Table 1

Cardiac k-Factors in Published Studies

ScannerCardiac ProtocolScan Length (cm)k-factor
ICRP 103 (mSv·mGy−1cm−1)
k-factor
ICRP 60 (mSv·mGy−1cm−1)
MethodologyFirst Author (Ref. #)
GE LightSpeed VCTRetrospectively ECG-gated helical
80, 100, 120, 140 kVp
160.0204–0.0268NSMonte Carlo dosimetryHuda et al. (22)
GE LightSpeed VCT, GE HD750Prospectively ECG-triggered axial
100, 120, 140 kVp
NSMedian 0.028NSMonte Carlo dosimetryGosling et al. (25,26)
Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 64Retrospectively ECG-gated helical
80, 100, 120, 140 kVp
160.0264–0.0274NSMonte Carlo dosimetryHuda et al. (22)
Siemens SOMATOM Definition AS+Retrospectively ECG-gated helical,
Prospectively ECG-triggered axial
100, 120 kVp
150.0320.024Physical dosimetryFink et al. (27)
Siemens SOMATOM Definition AS+Retrospectively ECG-gated helical
80, 100, 120, 140 kVp
160.0217–0.0282NSMonte Carlo dosimetryHuda et al. (22)
Siemens SOMATOM Definition AS+Retrospective ECG-gated helical
100, 120, 140 kVp
12.50.031–0.032NSMonte Carlo dosimetryChristner et al. (28)
Siemens SOMATOM DefinitionRetrospectively ECG-gated helical,
Prospectively ECG-triggered axial
100, 120 kVp
150.0280.021Physical dosimetryFink et al. (27)
Siemens SOMATOM Definition FlashRetrospectively ECG-gated helical,
Prospectively ECG-triggered axial,
Prospectively ECG-triggered helical
100, 120 kVp
13.5, 150.0340.028Physical dosimetryGoetti et al. (29)
Siemens SOMATOM Definition FlashRetrospectively ECG-gated helical,
Prospectively ECG-triggered axial,
Prospectively ECG-triggered helical
100, 120 kVp
15, 16.80.0230.018Physical dosimetryFink et al. (27)
Toshiba Aquilion 64Retrospectively ECG-gated helical
120 kVp
NS0.019–0.043
Mean 0.030
0.017–0.030
Mean 0.024
Monte Carlo dosimetryGeleijns et al. (21)
Toshiba Aquilion 64Retrospectively ECG-gated helical
120 kVp
NS0.0260.020Monte Carlo dosimetry§Geleijns et al. (21)
Toshiba Aquilion ONERetrospectively ECG-gated helical,
Prospectively ECG-triggered helical,
Prospectively ECG-triggered volume
100, 120 kVp
140.027–0.0340.020–0.024Physical dosimetryEinstein et al. (19)
Toshiba Aquilion ONERetrospectively ECG-gated helical,
Prospectively ECG-triggered volume
120 kVp
14(Retro) 0.025
(Pro) 0.022
(Retro) 0.020
(Pro) 0.017
Physical dosimetrySeguchi et al. (30)

Cardiac k-factors for adults reported in the literature by different groups, calculated using either physical dosimetry (various phantoms and dosimeters) or using a computational approach (simulations). These k-factors were for different scanners, scan modes, and parameters as tabulated.

CT = computed tomography; ECG = electrocardiography; NRPB = National Radiological Protection Board; Pro = prospectively ECG-triggered volume, 120 kVp; Retro = retrospectively ECG-gated helical, 120 kVp.

  • ImPACT = CT patient dosimetry calculator (version 1.0, ImPACT 2009), using NRPB Monte Carlo dose data.

  • ImPACT = CT patient dosimetry calculator (version 0.9x, ImPACT 2006) using NRPB Monte Carlo dose data.

  • Algorithm based on the Electron Gamma Shower V4 (EGS4) code in combination with low-energy photon-scattering expansion that was developed by the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (Japan).

  • § ImPACT version number was not reported.