Table 2

Indices of LA Structure and Function by Groups

Recurrence (n = 101)AF Free (n = 107)p Value
MeanCIMeanCI
LA structure/function
 Vmin, mm3/m223.9 ± 9.222.1 to 25.718.9 ± 7.317.5 to 20.3<0.001
 Maximum LA volume, mm3/m241.3 ± 10.839.2 to 43.438.0 ± 10.436.0 to 40.00.02
 Total LAEF, %43.4 ± 11.041.2 to 45.651.2 ± 9.349.4 to 53.0<0.001
 Passive LAEF, %19.6 ± 7.218.2 to 21.024.5 ± 6.323.3 to 25.8<0.001
 Active LAEF, %29.8 ± 11.327.5 to 32.035.3 ± 11.033.2 to 37.40.005
 Smax, %22.6 ± 6.721.3 to 23.932.4 ± 9.230.6 to 34.1<0.001
 SpreA, %12.0 ± 4.811.1 to 13.015.5 ± 6.514.2 to 16.7<0.001
 SRmax0.93 ± 0.330.87 to 1.001.3 ± 0.471.2 to 1.39<0.001
 SRe−0.76 ± 0.07−0.83 to 0.69−1.2 ± 0.48−1.30 to 1.11<0.001
 SRa−1.05 ± 0.53−1.16 to 0.95−1.5 ± 0.53−1.58 to 1.38<0.001
MedianIQRMedianIQR
Dyssynchrony
 SD-TPS, %3.92.9–5.12.21.8–2.8<0.001
 Mean TPS, ms396.6368.6–427.7403.7379.2–425.10.308
Recurrence (n = 68)AF Free (n = 78)
MedianIQRMedianIQR
LA fibrosis, % total LA area15.510.2–22.79.19.4–14.7<0.001

Values are mean ± SD or median (IQR).

AF = atrial fibrillation; CI = confidence interval; IQR = interquartile range; LA = left atrium; LAEF = LA emptying fraction; SD-TPS = SD of the time to peak strain; Smax = maximum longitudinal LA strain; SRmax = peak longitudinal strain rate; SRe = early diastolic strain rate; SRa = late diastolic strain rate; TPS = time to peak strain; SpreA = pre-atrial contraction strain.