Table 3

Multivariable Analyses (N = 208)

Model 1
Unadjusted
Model 2
Clinical Variables
Model 3
Model 2 ± Vmin ± Smax
Model 4
Model 3 ± LA Fibrosis
HRp ValueHRp ValueHRp ValueHRp Value
Clinical variables
 Age1.020.036
 Male0.790.306
 Body mass index, kg/m21.07<0.001
 AF type (persistent)1.650.017
 Hypertension1.420.079
 History of heart failure2.64<0.001
 History of DM1.180.597
 OSA1.640.037
 Ablation modality (cryoablation)1.040.884
MRI variables
 Vmin1.04<0.0011.040.001
 Smax, %0.91<0.0010.93<0.001
 SD-TPS, %1.25<0.0011.27<0.0011.21<0.001
 SD-TPS ≥ 2.8% vs < 2.8%4.71<0.0015.07<0.0013.90<0.001
Subset with available LA-LGE, n = 146
 LA fibrosis (% total LA area)1.610.002
 SD-TPS, %1.24<0.0011.38<0.0011.210.0031.230.003
 SD-TPS, ≥2.8% vs. <2.0%2.68<0.0013.08<0.0012.100.0224.70<0.001

Model 1, unadjusted; model 2, adjusted for age, sex, type of AF, body mass index, history of heart failure, hypertension, OSA; model 3, covariables included in model 2 in addition to Vmin, and maximum LA longitudinal strain; model 4, covariables included in model 3 in addition to LA fibrosis.

DM = diabetes mellitus; HR = hazard ratio; LGE = late gadolinium enhancement; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; Vmin = minimum left atrial volume; other abbreviations as in Tables 1 and 2.