Table 2

Echocardiographic Characteristics

Overall (N = 1,116)Normal RV Function (n = 791)RV Dysfunction (n = 325)p Value
Aortic stenosis severity
 Aortic valve area, cm20.70 ± 0.230.72 ± 0.230.65 ± 0.240.003
 Mean gradient, mm Hg43.7 ± 17.745.5 ± 17.339.8 ± 17.80.001
LV systolic function
 LV ejection fraction, %53.0 ± 14.856.6 ± 12.545.1 ± 16.5<0.001
LV diastolic dysfunction
 E/e'1.44 ± 1.131.25 ± 0.981.98 ± 1.35<0.001
 Deceleration Time, ms226.9 ± 84.2237.8 ± 86.5199.7 ± 71.4<0.001
 Isovolumic relaxation time, ms80.5 ± 23.282.2 ± 23.376.4 ± 22.4<0.001
RV function
 TAPSE, cm1.92 ± 0.572.22 ± 0.411.31 ± 0.30<0.001
 DTI (S'), cm·s−111.8 ± 3.213.0 ± 2.89.2 ± 2.4<0.001
 FAC, %41.3 ± 10.444.7 ± 8.633.3 ± 9.9<0.001
Evaluation of valvular abnormality
 Aortic regurgitation moderate or severe44 (8.8)30 (8.7)14 (9.2)0.87
 Mitral regurgitation moderate or severe133 (25.9)72 (20.4)61 (38.1)<0.001
 Tricuspid regurgitation moderate or severe98 (19.1)52 (14.7)46 (28.8)<0.001
Right sided hemodynamics
 RV–RA gradient, mm Hg38.8 ± 12.837.4 ± 12.541.6 ± 12.90.004
 Central venous pressure, mm Hg9.0 ± 3.98.5 ± 3.69.8 ± 4.20.002
 Pulmonary artery systolic pressure, mm Hg48.0 ± 14.646.1 ± 14.151.6 ± 15.00.001

Values are mean ± SD or n (%). p values are from Student t tests (continuous variables) or Fisher exact test (2 × 2 comparisons).

DTI = Doppler tissue imaging; FAC = fractional area change; LV = left ventricle; RA = right atrium; RV = right ventricle; TAPSE = tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.

  • By transthoracic echocardiography; if missing, transesophageal echocardiography was used.