Table 3

Univariable and Multivariable Predictors of Presence of MVO

Univariable AnalysisMultivariable Analysis
OR (95% CI)p ValueHR (95% CI)p Value
Demographic characteristics
 Age, yrs1.00 (0.97–1.04)0.959
 Male0.97 (0.39–2.41)0.954
 Body mass index, kg/m20.84 (0.74–0.95)0.0070.78 (0.67–0.92)0.002
Hp phenotypes genotypes
 Hp 2-2 vs. Hp 1-1 or 2-13.95 (1.77–8.81)0.0015.58 (2.14–14.56)<0.001
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Hypertension0.64 (0.30–1.36)0.245
 Current or previous smoking1.69 (0.78–3.64)0.183
 Hyperlipidemia1.10 (0.51–2.38)0.802
 Diabetes2.58 (1.02–6.52)0.0453.24 (1.02–10.33)0.047
 Family history of CAD1.27 (0.52–3.09)0.596
Medication before hospital admission
 Beta-blockers1.20 (0.50–2.90)0.687
 ACE-I/ARB0.98 (0.45–2.15)0.967
 Diuretic agents0.46 (0.05–3.91)0.473
 Ca-blockers0.26 (0.03–2.12)0.209
 Antithrombotic agents1.05 (0.46–2.37)0.915
 Anticoagulant agents
 Nitrates1.42 (0.13–16.11)0.778
 Statins1.16 (0.46–2.91)0.752
 Amiodarone
 Propafenone
 Flecainide
 Sotalol2.87 (0.18–46.97)0.461
Killip class1.36 (0.85–2.18)0.199
Site of myocardial infarction
 Anterior wall2.07 (0.98–4.38)0.0571.89 (0.77–4.64)0.166
Myocardial enzymes
 Peak troponin I, ng/ml (increase of 10 ng/ml)1.090 (1.034–1.149)0.0011.08 (1.01–1.15)0.019
Time to pPCI, min1.00 (0.95–1.05)0.954
TIMI flow-grade pre-PCI0.67 (0.38–1.19)0.171
TIMI flow-grade post-PCI0.49 (0.26–0.95)0.0350.46 (0.21–1.04)0.063
GRACE risk score (% risk)1.00 (0.99–1.02)0.410

Bold values indicate significant differences among groups.

AAR = area at risk; ACE-I = angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; CAD = coronary artery disease; CMR = cardiac magnetic resonance; GRACE = global registry of acute coronary events; LGE = late gadolinium enhancement; LVEDV = left ventricle end-diastolic volume; LVEF = left ventricle ejection fraction; LVESV = left ventricle end-systolic volume; HR = hazard ratio; MACE = major adverse cardiac events; MI = myocardial infarction; MH = myocardial hemorrhage; MVO = microvascular obstruction; PASP = pulmonary artery systolic pressure; RVEDV = right ventricle end-diastolic volume; RVEF = right ventricle ejection fraction; STEMI = ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; TAPSE = tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TTE = transthoracic echocardiography.