Table 2

ECG and Imaging Parameters at Inclusion of 117 Patients With AC and Risk Markers of Life-Threatening Ventricular Arrhythmia During Follow-Up

All (N = 117)No VA (n = 99)VA (n = 18)p ValueAdjusted HR (95% CI)p Value
Electrocardiography
 Epsilon7 (6)7 (7)-0.59
 NSVT23 (20)17 (17)6 (33)0.11
 SAECG abnor48 (48)39 (45)9 (64)0.19
 fQRS, ms115 ± 13115 ± 14117 ± 90.58
 HFLA, ms37 ± 1237 ± 1337 ± 80.93
 RMS, μV32 ± 1733 ± 1727 ± 170.19
 TAD >55 ms6 (5)6 (6)-0.59
 TWI33 (28)22 (22)11 (61)0.001--
 Major23 (20)14 (14)9 (50)<0.0014.7 (1.9-12.0)0.001
 Minor10 (9)8 (8)2 (11)0.65
Echocardiography
 EF, % (n = 115)57 ± 758 ± 552 ± 120.001
 GLS, % (n = 110)−19.3 ± 3.0−19.9 ± 2.4−16.6 ± 4.1<0.001
 LVMD, ms (n =110)41 ± 1837 ± 1362 ± 25<0.0011.3 (1.1-1.5)0.005
 RVD, mm40 ± 739 ± 645 ± 7<0.001
 RV FAC, % (n =111)42 ± 943 ± 934 ± 8<0.001
 RVLS, % (n =108)−24.8 ± 6.4−26.1 ± 5.8−18.6 ± 5.4<0.0011.1 (1.0-1.2)<0.05
 RVMD, ms (n =108)35 ± 1933 ± 1749 ± 20<0.001
 RVOT, mm34 ± 733 ± 638 ± 80.003
 TAPSE, mm (n = 114)21 ± 521 ± 517 ± 50.003
CMRN = 88n = 72n = 16
 LGE11 (13)7 (10)4 (27)0.08
 LVEDVi, ml/m288 ± 2485 ± 22114 ± 220.0071.1 (1.0-1.1)<0.05
 LVEF57 ± 858 ± 851 ± 80.04
 RVEDVi, ml/m299 ± 3598 ± 34106 ± 420.64
 RVEF49 ± 1150 ± 1137 ± 80.0030.9 (0.8-1.0)0.07
 RV aneurysm13 (15)6 (8)7 (47)<0.001
 RV fat infiltration17 (19)12 (17)5 (31)0.18
 RV wall abnormal27 (31)16 (22)11 (69)<0.001

Values are n (%) or mean ± SD, unless otherwise stated. The p values are calculated by Student's t-test, chi-square test, or Fischer’s exact test as appropriate. Separate multivariable Cox regression per category together with patient sex as possible confounder.

AC = arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; CMR = cardiac magnetic resonance; ECG = electrocardiogram; EF = ejection fraction; GLS = global longitudinal strain; HFLA = high frequency low amplitude duration below 40 μV; LGE = late gadolinium enhancement; LV = left ventricle; LVEDVi = LV end-diastolic volume indexed; LVIDd = LV internal diameter in diastole; LVMD = LV mechanical dispersion; RMS = root mean square voltage during final 40 ms; RV = right ventricle; RVD = RV basal diameter; RVEDVi = RV end-diastolic volume indexed; RV FAC = RV fractional area change; RVLS = RV longitudinal strain; RVMD = RV mechanical dispersion; RVOT = RV outflow tract diameter; SAECG = signal-averaged electrocardiogram; TAD = terminal activation duration; TAPSE = tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion; TWI = T-wave inversion; VA = life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia.

  • From echocardiography and CMR, only the parameters with the largest Harrell’s C-statistic from LV and RV in univariable Cox regression were retained in multivariable analysis, to minimize overfitting.

  • Hazard ratio by 10-ms increments.