Table 1

Participant Characteristics Across Quartile Categories of Energy-Adjusted Self-Reported Total (Dietary and Supplemental) Magnesium Intake in the Framingham Heart Study

Quartile 1
(n = 673)
Quartile 2
(n = 674)
Quartile 3
(n = 674)
Quartile 4
(n = 674)
p Value
Magnesium intake, mg/dayp Linear trend
 Median258.8303.6351.1427.4
 Range, mg/day159.8–283.9284.0–325.4325.5–383.6383.9–669.4
General characteristics
 Age at CT exam, yrs51.4 (0.4)52.9 (0.4)52.4 (0.4)54.1 (0.4)<0.001
 Female, %35.0 (2.0)49.0 (2.0)55.0 (2.0)59.0 (2.0)<0.001
 BMI, kg/m228.6 (0.2)28.0 (0.2)27.7 (0.2)27.3 (0.2)<0.001
 Physical activity, h/day4.9 (0.1)4.5 (0.1)4.7 (0.1)4.8 (0.1)0.19
 Current smoker, %17.0 (1.0)13.0 (1.0)11.0 (1.0)7.0 (1.0)<0.001
 Completed at least high school, %98.0 (0.0)99.0 (0.0)99.0 (0.0)99.0 (0.0)0.48
 College degree or higher, %35.0 (2.0)47.0 (2.0)54.0 (2.0)56.0 (2.0)<0.001
 Current HRT use, % of women18.0 (2.0)21.0 (2.0)20.0 (2.0)23.0 (2.0)0.50
 Post-menopausal, % of women49.0 (2.0)52.0 (2.0)49.0 (2.0)55.0 (2.0)0.09
Clinical and laboratory characteristics
 SBP, mm Hg122.9 (0.6)122.4 (0.6)121.3 (0.6)120.8 (0.6)0.05
 DBP, mm Hg77.2 (0.4)76.5 (0.3)76.0 (0.3)75.7 (0.4)0.02
 Antihypertensive Rx, %18.0 (1.0)16.0 (1.0)16.0 (1.0)17.0 (1.0)0.88
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl201.1 (1.4)198.3 (1.3)196.8 (1.3)193.8 (1.3)0.002
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dl52.1 (0.6)53.7 (0.5)53.2 (0.5)53.9 (0.6)0.09
 Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio4.2 (0.1)4.0 (0.1)4.0 (0.1)3.9 (0.1)<0.001
 Lipid-lowering Rx, %9.0 (1.0)14.0 (1.0)12.0 (1.0)15.0 (1.0)0.008
 Fasting glucose, mg/dl99.0 (0.8)98.8 (0.8)98.9 (0.8)97.8 (0.8)0.64
 Fasting insulin, pmol/l85.6 (1.0)82.3 (1.0)79.8 (1.0)79.0 (1.0)0.001
 Diabetes Rx, %1.0 (1.0)2.0 (1.0)2.0 (1.0)3.0 (1.0)0.45
 CVD prevention Rx, %13.0 (1.0)13.0 (1.0)13.0 (1.0)13.0 (1.0)0.97
 Aspirin use, %13.0 (1.0)16.0 (1.0)20.0 (1.0)22.0 (1.0)<0.001
 Osteoporosis Rx, %4.0 (1.0)3.0 (1.0)3.0 (1.0)4.0 (1.0)0.64
 CRP, mg/l3.3 (0.2)3.1 (0.2)2.7 (0.2)2.6 (0.2)0.01
 GFR, ml/min/1.73 m293.9 (0.7)94.0 (0.7)94.1 (0.7)94.1 (0.7)0.99
 CAC, AS5.93 (1.07)6.49 (1.07)5.75 (1.07)4.53 (1.07)0.002
 AS 0, %53.0 (2.0)54.0 (2.0)57.0 (2.0)61.0 (2.0)0.01
 AS >0–<10, %14.0 (1.0)11.0 (1.0)10.0 (1.0)10.0 (1.0)
 AS 10–<100, %15.0 (1.0)15.0 (1.0)15.0 (1.0)14.0 (1.0)
 AS 100–<400, %12.0 (1.0)12.0 (1.0)10.0 (1.0)8.0 (1.0)
 AS >400, %6.0 (1.0)7.0 (1.0)7.0 (1.0)7.0 (1.0)
 AAC, AS24.53 (1.09)21.33 (1.09)15.80 (1.09)15.96 (1.09)0.001
 AS >0, %56.0 (2.0)55.0 (2.0)50.0 (2.0)51.0 (2.0)0.02
Dietary characteristics
 Magnesium, total, mg/day250.9 (1.3)302.4 (1.3)350.3 (1.3)442.7 (1.3)<0.001
 From diet, mg/day250.8 (1.6)300.5 (1.6)334.4 (1.5)380.0 (1.6)<0.001
 From supplements, mg/day1.8 (1.3)3.6 (1.3)17.6 (1.3)64.4 (1.3)<0.001
 Calcium, total, mg/day803.7 (15.2)947.1 (15.1)1078.5 (15.0)1279.0 (15.2)<0.001
 From diet, mg/day696.6 (10.9)813.5 (10.8)886.0 (10.7)929.1 (10.8)<0.001
 From supplements, mg/day112.1 (11.9)138.5 (11.8)197.4 (11.7)354.8 (11.9)<0.001
 Energy, kcal/day2036 (24)1830 (24)1949 (24)2092 (24)<0.001
 Vitamin K, mcg/day109.2 (4.7)145.9 (4.6)185.4 (4.6)236.2 (4.7)<0.001
 Vitamin D, IU/day246.5 (10.0)345.4 (9.9)427.7 (9.9)599.7 (10.0)<0.001
 Saturated fat, g/day27.3 (0.2)25.9 (0.2)24.1 (0.2)21.8 (0.2)<0.001
 Fiber, g/day14.2 (0.2)17.2 (0.2)20.0 (0.2)23.7 (0.2)<0.001
 Alcohol, g/day11.8 (0.6)11.2 (0.5)10.4 (0.5)9.5 (0.6)0.01
 Multivitamin use, %27.0 (2.0)39.0 (2.0)52.0 (2.0)79.0 (2.0)<0.001

Values are mean (SE), unless otherwise indicated. All characteristics are age- and sex-adjusted, except for age and sex, which are mutually adjusted. Dietary characteristics are also energy-adjusted.

AAC = abdominal aortic calcification; AS = Agatston score; BMI = body mass index; CAC = coronary artery calcification; CRP = C-reactive protein; CT = computed tomography; CVD = cardiovascular disease; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; GFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HRT = hormone replacement therapy; Rx = use of medication/treatment; SBP = systolic blood pressure; SE = standard error.

  • Analyzed in the natural logarithm scale and back-transformed. Geometric mean (geometric SE) are presented.