Table 4

Comparison of the Different Imaging Modalities for Assessment of the LAA

TEEMDCTCMR
Sensitivity/specificity for LAA thrombi detection92%–100%/98%–99%96%/92%67%/44%
Spatial resolution0.2–0.5 mm0.4 mm1–2 mm
Temporal resolution20–33 ms70–105 ms30–50 ms
3D volume renderingYes (with 3D)YesYes
Contrast requiredNoYesNo
Ionizing radiationNoYesNo
Special considerationsWidely available, provides real-time assessment
Semi-invasive
Noninvasive, dynamic assessment of LA function
Cannot be performed real-time during procedures
Limited availability
Noninvasive, cannot be performed real-time during procedures
Limited availability
Cannot be performed in patients with pacemakers

CMR = cardiac magnetic resonance; LA = left atrium; other abbreviations as in Table 3.

  • Contrast may be used to enhance visualization of a thrombus in equivocal cases.