Table 5

Summary of Studies for Sex-Based Differences in Intimal Hyperplasia Following Stent Implantation

First Author, Year (Ref. #)Imaging UsedSample SizePatient PopulationMain Findings
Kaneda et al., 2007 (65)IVUSN = 525
(17.9% women)
Patients receiving BMS and undergoing IVUS at 6–8 months post-stent implantation.Greater neointimal hyperplasia in women compared with men due to smaller stent area. When adjusted for stent area, these differences were lost.
Nakatani et al., 2011 (66)IVUSZES: N = 391 (28.1% women);
BMS: N = 85 (21.1% women)
ZES group: Stable and unstable angina patients enrolled in ENDEAVOR II, ENDEAVOR II Continued Access Registry, ENDEAVOR III, and ENDEAVOR IV (Medtronic Endeavor Drug [ABT-578] Eluting Coronary Stent System) studies who were treated with ZES and had IVUS at 8-month follow-up.
BMS group: Control subjects were patients in the ENDEAVOR II trial treated with BMS who had IVUS at 8-month follow-up.
Female sex was associated with less neointimal obstruction on IVUS at 8 months in the ZES but not BMS group.
Regueiro et al., 2015 (3) (EXAMINATION trial)IVUSN = 1,498
(17% women)
Patients with STEMI undergoing PCI randomized to be treated with EES or BMS.Women demonstrated lower risk of restenosis (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32–0.95) compared with men, driven by better performance of EES in women.

BMS = bare-metal stent(s); EES = everolimus-eluting stent(s); ZES = zotarolimus-eluting stent(s); other abbreviations as in Tables 2 and 3.