Table 1

Patient Characteristics

Total Population
(N = 69)
AMI/OHCA
(n = 12)
Non-AMI/OHCA
(n = 57)
p Value
Male51 (73.9)9 (75.0)42 (73.7)1.000
Age, yrs54 (49–59)54 (50–58)54 (47–59)0.962
BMI, kg/m224.3 (22.9–26.2)26.0 (20.3–27.6)24.3 (22.9–25.9)0.716
Risk factors
 Diabetes6 (8.7)2 (16.7)4 (7.0)0.278
 Hypercholesterolemia23 (33.3)1 (8.3)22 (38.6)0.050
 Smoking0.243
  Ex-smoker12 (17.4)1 (8.3)11 (19.3)
  Current smoker31 (44.9)8 (66.7)23 (40.4)
 Hypertension25 (36.2)5 (41.7)20 (35.1)0.667
 Family history of CAD2 (2.9)1 (8.3)1 (1.8)0.320
 Previous MI1 (1.4)0 (0)1 (1.8)1.000
 Previous stroke1 (1.4)0 (0)1 (1.8)1.000
Clinical manifestation
 Spontaneous spasm17 (24.6)6 (50.0)11 (19.3)0.025
 OHCA4 (5.8)4 (33.3)0 (0)
 AMI11 (15.9)11 (91.7)0 (0)
 UA58 (84.1)
 Braunwald class IB7 (12.1)7 (12.3)
 Braunwald class IIB25 (43.1)25 (43.9)
 Braunwald class IIIB26 (44.8)25 (43.9)
 ECG at admission<0.001
  ST-segment elevation12 (17.4)8 (66.7)4 (7.0)
  ST-segment depression1 (1.4)0 (0)1 (1.8)
  T inversion2 (2.9)0 (0)2 (3.5)
Laboratory findings
 Creatinine, mg/dl1.1 (0.9–1.2)1.1 (0.9–1.4)1.0 (0.9–1.2)0.021
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl182 (154–207)161 (136–162)182 (157–205)0.383
 LDL, mg/dl93 (77–117)89 (51–58)93 (77–124)0.514
 hs-CRP, m/dl0.06 (0.03–0.16)0.31 (0.09–0.75)0.06 (0.03–0.13)0.021
 Peak CK-MB, ng/ml1.1 (0.7–2.3)10.6 (4.6–76.7)0.9 (0.6–1.3)<0.001
 Peak troponin T, ng/ml0.01 (0.01–0.05)1.03 (0.26–3.37)0.01 (0.01–0.03)<0.001
Echocardiography
 Ejection fraction, %66 (62–69)63 (51–68)66 (62–69)<0.001
Spasm site (n = 80)0.919
 LAD35 (43.8)7 (43.8)28 (43.8)
 LCx7 (8.8)1 (6.3)6 (9.4)
 RCA38 (47.5)8 (50.0)30 (46.9)

Values are n (%) or median (interquartile range).

AMI = acute myocardial infarction; BMI = body mass index; CAD = coronary artery disease; CK-MB = creatinine kinase, myocardial band; ECG = electrocardiogram; hs-CRP = high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; LAD = left anterior descending coronary artery; LCx = left circumflex artery; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MI = myocardial infarction; OHCA = out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; RCA = right coronary artery; UA = unstable angina.