Table 1

Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of the Study Population

Overall
Population
(n = 227)
Patients With
Major
Complications
(n = 59)
Patients Without
Major
Complications
(n = 168)
p Value
Age, yrs66.2 ± 12.267.5 ± 14.565.8 ± 11.40.372
Age ≥ 75 yrs65 (28.6)25 (42.4)40 (23.8)0.011
Female205 (90.3)54 (91.5)151 (89.9)0.804
Body surface area, m21.6 ± 0.11.6 ± 0.11.6 ± 0.10.054
Medical history
 Hypertension137 (60.4)33 (55.9)104 (61.9)0.442
 Hypercholesterolemia88 (38.8)20 (33.9)68 (40.5)0.438
 Diabetes mellitus25 (11.0)10 (16.9)15 (8.9)0.096
 Smoking47 (20.7)15 (25.4)32 (19.0)0.351
 Menopause180 (87.8)46 (85.1)134 (88.7)0.477
 Coronary artery disease19 (8.4)4 (6.8)15 (8.9)0.787
 Active cancer16 (8.0)6 (11.3)10 (6.8)0.376
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease19 (9.5)6 (11.3)13 (8.9)0.593
Presenting features
 Chest pain161 (70.9)27 (45.8)134 (79.8)<0.001
 Chest pain and dyspnea30 (13.2)15 (25.4)15 (8.9)0.003
 Dyspnea26 (11.5)11 (18.6)15 (8.9)0.057
Other symptoms10 (4.4)6 (10.2)4 (2.4)0.021
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg131.1 ± 25.6129.6 ± 32.6131.6 ± 23.10.606
 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg77.4 ± 12.876.7 ± 14.177.7 ±12.40.619
 Heart rate, beats/min84.8 ± 16.188.8 ± 20.583.4 ± 14.10.031
 Presence of identifiable trigger events187 (82.4)48 (81.4)139 (82.7)0.843
 Emotional trigger133 (58.6)31 (52.5)102 (60.7)0.286
 Physical trigger54 (23.8)17 (28.8)37 (22.0)0.190
Serum assays
 Troponin I, ng/ml0.9 (0.3–2.0)0.7 (0.3–1.6)0.9 (0.3–2.2)0.691
 CK-MB, ng/ml19.7 (8.2–35)18.5 (8.1–31)20 (8.2–37.9)0.401
 BNP, pg/ml806.8 ± 181.3856.0 ± 207.0790.0 ± 169.40.047
 Hemoglobin, g/dl12.9 ± 1.512.8 ± 1.512.9 ± 1.50.596
 GFR, ml/min70.2 ± 21.566.4 ± 25.271.6 ± 19.50.118
 CRP, mg/dl12.6 (6.5–26.4)13 (6.1–27.5)12.5 (6.5–26.2)0.938
ECG features at admission
 Isolated STE72 (31.7)15 (25.4)57 (33.9)0.258
 STE with TWI72 (31.7)21 (35.6)51 (30.4)0.516
 Non-STE53 (23.3)15 (25.4)38 (22.6)0.721
 Isolated TWI30 (13.2)8 (13.6)22 (13.1)1.000
 Prolonged QTc-interval99 (43.6)23 (39.0)76 (45.2)0.447
 Left ventricular morphology
 Apical ballooning175 (77.1)42 (71.2)133 (79.2)0.213
 Midventricular ballooning41 (18.1)12 (20.3)29 (17.3)0.694
 Basal ballooning11 (4.8)5 (8.5)6 (3.6)0.159
 Involvement of ≥4 coronary territories204 (89.9)57 (96.6)147 (87.5)0.047
 Length of hospitalization, days7 (5–10)9 (5–12.2)6 (5–9)0.002

Continuous normally distributed variables are mean ± SD. Categorical variables are n (%). Continuous non-normally distributed variables are median (interquartile range).

BNP = brain natriuretic peptide; CK-MB = creatine kinase-MB; CRP = C-reactive protein; ECG = electrocardiography; GFR = glomerular filtration rate; STE = ST-segment elevation; TWI = T-wave inversion.

  • Data were available for 199 patients (53 with major complications).

  • Data were available for 157 patients (40 with major complications).