Table 1

Patient Baseline Characteristics

CharacteristicConventional (n = 49)RT3DTEE (n = 21)
Men4118
Age (yrs)68.3 ± 9.461.3 ± 12.5
Hypertension299
Coronary artery disease246
Valve disease63
Other CV disease136
“Lone” atrial flutter63
COPD32
Left atrial diameter (mm)43.8 ± 9.443.5 ± 8.9
LVEF (%)48.9 ± 17.356.4 ± 13.2
Paroxysmal atrial flutter1811
Persistent atrial flutter3011
History of atrial fibrillation1514
Treatment with AA drugs
 Amiodarone154
 Sotalol31
 Class IC AA drugs11
 Beta-blockers3015
Digitalis20
Calcium channel blockers10
ACE inhibitors/ARBs3011
Diuretic agents214
Statins277

Values are n or mean ± SD.

AA = antiarrhythmic; ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; CV = cardiovascular; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; RT3DTEE = real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

  • Significant difference for age (p = 0.02).

  • Difference in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.03).