Table 2

Selected Adjusted Predictors of Stress Testing Modality

Exercise ECG (n = 5,034) vs. Exercise Imaging (n = 31,965)Pharm Imaging (n = 31,293) vs. Exercise Imaging (n = 31,965)Exercise Echo (n = 5,286) vs. Exercise Nuclear (n = 26,679)
OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Demographic and clinical characteristics at time of index PCI
 Age, per 10 yrs1.20 (1.14–1.27)<0.0012.12 (2.06–2.19)<0.0010.99 (0.93–1.05)0.64
 BMI, per unit, kg/m21.01 (1.01–1.02)<0.0011.05 (1.05–1.06)<0.0011.00 (0.99–1.00)0.30
 White race vs. other0.88 (0.80–0.98)0.010.92 (0.88–0.98)0.0051.12 (1.01–1.23)0.03
 Male vs. female1.04 (0.97–1.12)0.230.56 (0.54–0.58)<0.0010.95 (0.89–1.02)0.15
 PVD0.99 (0.89–1.11)0.891.52 (1.44–1.60)<0.0010.97 (0.87–1.08)0.58
 History of heart failure1.16 (1.01–1.33)0.031.58 (1.48–1.69)<0.0010.83 (0.72–0.97)0.02
 Diabetes mellitus1.15 (1.07–1.24)<0.0011.44 (1.39–1.50)<0.0010.99 (0.92–1.07)0.87
 Hypertension0.97 (0.90–1.05)0.391.20 (1.15–1.26)<0.0010.93 (0.86–1.00)0.06
 Statin use1.04 (0.96–1.12)0.360.90 (0.87–0.94)<0.0010.93 (0.87–1.00)0.06
 Current smoker0.94 (0.84–1.05)0.261.50 (1.42–1.59)<0.0011.03 (0.93–1.14)0.57
 Family history of CAD before age 550.96 (0.86–1.06)0.401.29 (1.23–1.36)<0.0011.08 (0.98–1.20)0.13
 Previous MI (>7 days from PCI)1.01 (0.94–1.10)0.740.95 (0.91–0.99)0.0090.95 (0.88–1.03)0.19
 GFR <30 ml/min/1.73m2 or dialysis dependent, vs. GFR ≥601.04 (0.97–1.12)0.231.19 (1.15–1.23)<0.0011.04 (0.97–1.11)0.28
 Previous PCI0.87 (0.80–0.95)<0.0011.14 (1.09–1.19)<0.0011.01 (0.94–1.09)0.78
 Previous CABG1.04 (0.95–1.14)0.421.23 (1.17–1.29)<0.0010.98 (0.89–1.08)0.68
Cardiac status at time of PCI admission presentation, vs. stable angina
 No symptoms0.98 (0.87–1.10)0.691.10 (1.04–1.16)0.0020.94 (0.85–1.05)0.27
 Atypical chest pain1.05 (0.91–1.20)0.521.06 (0.99–1.14)0.100.82 (0.72–0.93)0.003
 Unstable angina0.99 (0.89–1.08)0.751.02 (0.97–1.07)0.561.00 (0.91–1.10)0.98
 NSTEMI1.21 (1.07–1.36)0.0021.04 (0.97–1.11)0.260.92 (0.82–1.03)0.16
 STEMI1.25 (1.07–1.47)0.0060.85 (0.77–0.93)<0.0010.88 (0.75–1.03)0.12
Multivessel disease1.01 (0.94–1.07)0.891.11 (1.07–1.15)<0.0010.86 (0.80–0.91)<0.001
PCI procedure and facility characteristics
 PCI status vs. elective
  Urgent0.95 (0.38–2.34)0.910.99 (0.95–1.03)0.491.14 (1.06–1.23)<0.001
  Emergency1.05 (0.91–1.21)0.491.07 (0.99–1.17)0.101.12 (0.97–1.29)0.13
  Salvage0.95 (0.38–2.34)0.911.36 (0.82–2.28)0.240.85 (0.32–2.29)0.75
Drug-eluting vs. bare metal stents1.11 (1.03–1.20)0.0070.86 (0.83–0.90)<0.0010.93 (0.87–1.01)0.08
Census division vs. South Atlantic
 New England1.99 (1.75–2.27)<0.0010.60 (0.55–0.66)<0.0011.13 (0.96–1.33)0.14
 Middle Atlantic0.76 (0.65–0.89)<0.0011.08 (1.00–1.16)0.051.20 (1.02–1.40)0.02
 East North Central1.30 (1.18–1.43)<0.0011.10 (1.04–1.16)<0.0011.76 (1.58–1.96)<0.001
 West North Central0.56 (0.48–0.66)<0.0011.12 (1.05–1.19)<0.0012.18 (1.92–2.47)<0.001
 East South Central2.43 (2.16–2.73)<0.0011.05 (0.98–1.13)0.191.51 (1.29–1.76)<0.001
 West South Central1.30 (1.13–1.49)<0.0011.38 (1.28–1.48)<0.0012.14 (1.86–2.45)<0.001
 Mountain1.73 (1.50–1.99)<0.0011.14 (1.05–1.24)0.0024.26 (3.71–4.88)<0.001
 Pacific1.30 (1.15–1.47)<0.0011.00 (0.93–1.07)0.925.08 (4.53–5.70)<0.001
PCI hospital vs. university
 Government0.63 (0.46–0.85)0.0021.32 (1.15–1.52)<0.0010.20 (0.14–0.28)<0.001
 Private and nonteaching1.04 (0.92–1.18)0.491.28 (1.19–1.38)<0.0010.54 (0.48–0.60)<0.001
 Private and teaching0.89 (0.80–1.00)0.061.13 (1.06–1.22)<0.0010.56 (0.50–0.63)<0.001
Average annual PCI volume, per 100 increase0.99 (0.99–1.00)<0.0011.00 (0.99–1.00)0.0010.99 (0.98–0.99)<0.001
No. of CMS-certified beds, per 100 increase1.08 (1.06–1.09)<0.0011.01 (1.01–1.02)<0.0011.01 (1.00–1.03)0.12
Calendar quarter of stress test1.02 (1.01–1.03)<0.0011.00 (1.00–1.01)0.240.99 (0.98–1.00)0.04
Time from PCI to stress test, per 30 days0.80 (0.79–0.81)<0.0011.04 (1.03–1.04)<0.0010.96 (0.95–0.97)<0.001

CI = confidence interval; OR = odds ratio; other abbreviations as in Table 1.