Table 1

Clinical Characteristics of the REF Group and the Entire Study Population

Men (REF) (n = 262)Women (REF) (n = 423)Men (Non-REF) (n = 437)Women (Non-REF) (n = 372)Men, All (n = 699)Women, All (n = 795)
Age, yrs60.6 ± 8.561.7 ± 8.667.4 ± 8.667.8 ± 8.364.9 ± 9.164.6 ± 9.0
Height, m1.76 ± 0.071.62 ± 0.061.74 ± 0.06§1.60 ± 0.061.75 ± 0.061.61 ± 0.06
Weight, kg84.6 ± 14.067.9 ± 12.488.7 ± 14.074.7 ± 16.587.2 ± 13.471.1 ± 14.8
BMI, kg/m227.2 ± 3.525.8 ± 4.429.1 ± 4.329.0 ± 6.028.4 ± 4.127.3 ± 5.4
SBP, mm Hg117 ± 10114 ± 12132 ± 17135 ± 19126 ± 17124 ± 19
DBP, mm Hg73 ± 1170 ± 877 ± 1175 ± 1176 ± 1072 ± 10
+HTN, %NANA96.397.860.245.8
+WMA, %NANA21.78.113.63.8
+MIHF, %NANA9.82.76.21.3

Values are mean ± SD or %.

BMI = body mass index; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; +HTN = presence of any antecedent hypertension or use of antihypertensive medications; +MIHF = positive history of adjudicated myocardial infarction or heart failure; NA = not applicable; non-REF = participants not in the referent group; REF = healthy referent group (members were free of HTN, WMA, and MIHF by definition); SBP = systolic blood pressure; +WMA = having a cardiovascular magnetic resonance focal wall motion abnormality.

  • p < 0.05 between men and women of corresponding groups (e.g., Men [REF] versus Women [REF]);

  • p < 0.001 within-sex difference between REF and non-REF;

  • p < 0.001 between men and women of corresponding groups (e.g., Men [REF] versus Women [REF]);

  • § p < 0.05 within-sex difference between REF and non-REF.