Table 1

Summary of Reference Limits for Selected Measurements of RV

RV ParameterUnitAbnormal
RV FAC%<35.0
TAPSE (displacement)cm<1.6
RIMP (index of myocardial performance, pulse Doppler)>0.4
DTI s' (pulsed wave) at the annuluscm/s<10.0
DTI s' (color coded) at basecm/s<6.2
PVR (Doppler)WU>2.0
3D RVEF%<44.0
DTI global strain (free wall)%>−15.9
2D speckle global strain (free wall)%>−19.8
Vena contracta width in severe TRcm>0.7
Tricuspid annulus diametercm>3.1

RV FAC = [end diastolic area (cm2) – end systolic area (cm2)] / end diastolic area (cm2). RIMP = (IVRT + IVCT)/ ET = (TCO – ET)/ ET. PASP = 4 × (TRVmax)2 + RA pressure based on IVC size and collapse. PVR = TRV (m/s)/TVI RVOT (cm) × 10 + 0.16 (Wood units).

2D = 2-dimensional; 3D = 3-dimensional; DTI = Doppler tissue imaging; DTI s' = Doppler tissue imaging septal velocity; ET = ejection time; FAC = fractional area change; IVC = inferior vena cava; IVCT = isovolumic contraction time; IVRT = isovolumic relaxation time; PASP = pulmonary artery systolic pressure; PVR = pulmonary vascular resistance; RIMP = right ventricular index of myocardial performance; RA = right atrial; RV = right ventricular; RVEF = right ventricular ejection fraction; RVOT = right ventricular outflow tract; TAPSE = tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TCO = tricuspid closure-opening time; TR = tricuspid regurgitation; TRV = tricuspid regurgitation velocity; TVI = time velocity integral; WU = Wood units.