Table 2

Baseline Echocardiographic Characteristics, Time Intervals, and Vortex Parameters

Study Population
(n = 11)
Control Patients
(n = 11)
p Value
Echo baseline and flow characteristics
 IVS thickness, mm11 ± 310 ± 10.19
 End-diastolic volume, ml258 ± 9767 ± 9<0.001
 End-systolic volume, ml190 ± 8831 ± 4<0.001
 Ejection fraction, %25 ± 865 ± 3<0.001
 E-wave, cm/s57 ± 1671 ± 120.04
 A-wave, cm/s67 ± 2761 ± 150.65
 E/A ratio1.1 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.50.34
 E/e' ratio17.8 ± 3.37.7 ± 1.5<0.001
Time intervals
 Cardiac cycle, ms917 ± 100948 ± 1220.54
 IC, ms85 ± 3661 ± 120.053
 Ejection, ms245 ± 80293 ± 210.07
 IVR, ms167 ± 52159 ± 640.76
 Diastolic filling time, ms318 ± 109304 ± 1050.30
Flow parameters
 Onset of E-wave to peak E, ms119 ± 51102 ± 390.42
 E-wave to vortex formation interval, ms87 ± 3931 ± 11<0.001
 Early diastolic LV flow acceleration, m/s20.09 ± 0.101.13 ± 0.50<0.001
 TDV, ms62 ± 4421 ± 60.03
 Vortex intensity, % LV vorticity40 ± 749 ± 70.003
 Vortex area, % of LV area20 ± 237 ± 60.001
 Vortex length, % of LV length50 ± 374 ± 14<0.001

Boldface indicates significant p value.

Values are mean ± SD. Details of statistical analysis are similar to that presented in Table 1.

E/A = early to late diastolic mitral flow velocity ratio; E/e' = early diastolic flow velocity to mitral annular velocity ratio; IC = isovolumic contraction; IVR = isovolumic relaxation; IVS = interventricular septum; LV = left ventricular; TDV = timing of onset of diastolic vortex formation.

  • p values were determined by using the Mann-Whitney U test.