Table 3

Standardized ORs for Annualized CAC Progression (Incident and Increased CAC) Relative to Novel Markers

Novel MarkersCAC ProgressionIncident CACIncreased CAC
Unadjusted OR per 1 SDAdjusted OR per 1 SDAdjusted OR per 1 SDUnadjusted OR per 1 SDAdjusted OR per 1 SDAdjusted OR per 1 SDUnadjusted OR per 1 SDAdjusted OR per 1 SDAdjusted OR per 1 SD
LDLpn (nmol/l)1.15 (1.05–1.26)1.21 (1.10–1.33)0.93 (0.79–1.11)1.17 (1.02–1.34)1.20 (1.04–1.38)0.88 (0.69–1.13)1.08 (0.94–1.24)1.14 (0.99–1.32)1.02 (0.79–1.32)
Urine albumin (mg/dl)1.15 (0.99–1.32)1.18 (1.01–1.38)1.11 (0.95–1.30)1.16 (1.04–1.29)1.16 (0.98–1.37)1.10 (0.92–1.33)1.59 (0.98–2.59)1.55 (0.95–2.53)1.34 (0.81–2.20)
CRP (mg/l)1.16 (1.07–1.26)1.13 (1.04–1.23)1.07 (0.98–1.18)1.14 (1.01–1.29)1.12 (0.99–1.27)0.98 (0.84–1.15)1.24 (1.07–1.44)1.21 (1.04–1.41)1.16 (0.99–1.35)
D-dimer (μg/ml)1.14 (1.02–1.27)1.07 (0.98–1.16)1.07 (0.98–1.17)1.08 (0.97–1.21)1.07 (0.97–1.18)1.07 (0.96–1.20)1.11 (0.95–1.30)1.07 (0.92–1.24)1.06 (0.91–1.23)
Factor VIIIc (%)1.19 (1.09–1.30)1.09 (0.99–1.19)1.08 (0.98–1.20)1.13 (0.98–1.31)1.07 (0.92–1.24)1.06 (0.91–1.23)1.09 (0.96–1.24)1.04 (0.91–1.18)1.03 (0.89–1.18)
tHcy (μmol/l)1.15 (1.04–1.27)1.08 (0.99–1.19)1.02 (0.93–1.12)1.04 (0.93–1.16)1.02 (0.90–1.15)0.97 (0.81–1.16)1.10 (0.95–1.27)1.07 (0.92–1.24)1.03 (0.88–1.20)
Fibrinogen (mg/dl)1.21 (1.10–1.32)1.11 (1.01–1.22)1.03 (0.92–1.15)1.25 (1.09–1.44)1.20 (1.04–1.38)1.03 (0.87–1.22)1.10 (0.95–1.26)1.04 (0.90–1.19)0.94 (0.80–1.10)
Cystatin C (mg/l)1.34 (1.23–1.47)1.19 (1.08–1.31)1.01 (0.91–1.12)1.29 (1.13–1.47)1.21 (1.05–1.39)1.00 (0.86–1.17)1.20 (1.04–1.38)1.13 (0.97–1.30)1.03 (0.87–1.21)
sICAM-1 (ng/ml)1.26 (1.10–1.43)1.23 (1.07–1.41)1.15 (0.99–1.34)1.28 (1.06–1.55)1.27 (1.04–1.54)1.15 (0.92–1.44)1.09 (0.89–1.33)1.08 (0.88–1.32)1.05 (0.84–1.30)
Imputed sICAM-1 (ng/ml)1.22 (1.07–1.40)1.20 (1.04–1.38)1.12 (0.94–1.34)1.32 (1.11–1.58)1.04 (1.02–1.06)1.21 (0.98–1.50)1.17 (0.93–1.48)1.16 (0.93–1.45)1.13 (0.88–1.46)
CIMT (mm)1.36 (1.25–1.49)1.16 (1.05–1.28)1.02 (0.92–1.13)1.29 (1.12–1.49)1.18 (1.02–1.38)1.04 (0.88–1.22)1.15 (1.00–1.31)1.04 (0.90–1.20)0.94 (0.81–1.09)

Values are OR (95% confidence interval).

CRP = C-reactive protein; OR = odds ratio; other abbreviations as in Tables 1 and 2.

  • Age-only adjustment.

  • Adjusted by age, sex, race/ethnicity, SBP, DBP, HTN treatment, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, current smoking, BMI, physical activity, and family history of heart attack.