Table 1

Baseline Characteristics and CAC Progression Among Low-Risk Participants

No CAC Progression (n = 2,046)CAC Progression (n = 574)p Value
Age (yrs)55.9 ± 8.360.4 ± 9.2<0.01
Female72.574.40.38
Race/ethnicity0.08
 White39.345.1
 Black26.124.7
 Chinese13.311.9
 Hispanic21.318.3
SBP (mm Hg)118.2 ± 18.3124.9 ± 19.2<0.01
DBP (mm Hg)69.9 ± 10.071.4 ± 10.1<0.01
BMI (kg/m2)27.7 ± 5.528.8 ± 6.2<0.01
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)195.3 ± 33.1200.7 ± 38.0<0.01
HDL (mg/dl)55.4 ± 15.454.1 ± 14.80.07
LDL (mg/dl)117.1 ± 29.8120.5 ± 32.00.02
Triglycerides (mg/dl)114.3 ± 63.6127.3 ± 67.8<0.01
Current smoking9.0410.450.31
HTN treatment17.331.0<0.01
Family history of CHD35.848.4<0.01
Mean baseline FRS (%)3.0 ± 2.54.1 ± 2.5<0.01
Mean baseline CAC score (in CAC >0)23.0 ± 178.0106.8 ± 228.80.01
Median baseline CAC score (in CAC >0)18.780.7<0.01
CAC = 079.037.3<0.01
Education0.03
 Less than high school12.515.8
 High school16.217.4
 College or bachelor50.150.2
 Graduate school or professional21.216.6
Physical activity924.7 ± 2,608.71,000.0 ± 2879.10.55
Marital status (married)62.453.7<0.01
Income ($)<0.01
 <25,00023.029.6
 25,000–50,00028.531.6
 50,000–75,00020.015.0
 >75,00028.523.8
Health insurance89.691.5<0.01
Medications use
 Aspirin10.614.40.01
 ACEI/ARB use7.513.8<0.01
 Beta-blocker4.76.30.14
 Nitrates0.050.170.34
 Calcium blocker6.010.8<0.01
 Estrogen use (women)30.030.30.91

Values are mean ± SD or %.

ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI = body mass index; CAC = coronary artery calcium; CHD = coronary heart disease; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; FRC = Framingham Risk Score; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; HTN = hypertension; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MET = metabolic equivalent; SBP = systolic blood pressure.

  • Physical activity is defined as vigorous physical activity total (MET [min]/week, Monday through Sunday).