Author + information
- Received February 3, 2009
- Revision received May 29, 2009
- Accepted June 3, 2009
- Published online September 1, 2009.
- Timothy F. Christian, MD⁎,⁎ (, )
- Stephen P. Bell, BS⁎,
- Lawrence Whitesell, BS† and
- Michael Jerosch-Herold, PhD‡
Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Timothy F. Christian, Professor of Medicine, Director of Cardiac Imaging, MCHV McClure 1060, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05495
Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) first pass (FP) perfusion measures of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) with a 3.0-T magnet and compare these measures with FP perfusion at 1.5-T with absolute MBF by labeled microspheres as the gold standard.
Background First-pass magnetic resonance (MR) myocardial perfusion imaging can quantify MBF, but images are of low signal at conventional magnetic field strength due to the need for rapid acquisition.
Methods A pig model was used to alter MBF in a coronary artery during FP CMR (intracoronary adenosine followed by ischemia). This produces an active zone with a range of MBF and a control zone. Microspheres were injected into the left atrium with concurrent reference sampling. FP MR perfusion imaging was performed at 1.5-T (n = 9) or 3.0-T (n = 8) with a saturation-recovery gradient echo sequence in short-axis slices during a bolus injection of 0.025 mmol/kg gadolinium–diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Fermi function deconvolution was performed on active and control region of interest from short-axis slices with an arterial input function derived from the left ventricular cavity. These MR values of MBF were matched to microsphere values obtained from short-axis slices at pathology.
Results Occlusion MBF was 0.21 ± 0.26 ml/min/g, adenosine MBF was 2.28 ± 0.99 ml/min/g, and control zone MBF was 0.70 ± 0.22 ml/min/g. The correlation of MR FP CMR with microsphere was close for both field strengths: 3.0-T, r = 0.98, p < 0.0001 and 1.5-T, r = 0.95, p < 0.0001. The 95% confidence limits of agreement were slightly narrower at 3.0-T (3.0-T = 0.49 ml/min/g, 1.5-T = 0.68 ml/min/g, p < 0.05). The FP CMR image characteristics were better at 3.0-T (noise and contrast enhancement were both superior at 3.0-T). In myocardial zones where MBF <0.50 ml/min/g, the correlation with microspheres was closer at 3.0-T (r = 0.55 at 1.5-T, r = 0.85 at 3.0-T).
Conclusions Absolute MBF by FP perfusion imaging is accurate at both 1.5- and 3.0-T. Signal quality is better at 3.0-T, which might confer a benefit for estimating MBF in ischemic zones.
This work was supported in full by a Grant-in-Aid from the American Heart Association (to Dr. Christian).
- Received February 3, 2009.
- Revision received May 29, 2009.
- Accepted June 3, 2009.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation